What oil derivatives



Contents

  • 1 oil
  • 2 oil derivatives
    • 2.1 Gasoline
    • 2.2 Kerosene
    • 2.3 Lubricating oils
    • 2.4 Paraffin wax
    • 2.5 diesel
    • 2.6 Asphalt
    • 2.7 Petrochemicals
    • 2.8 LPG
    • 2.9 Fuel oil
  • 3 References

The oil

Consists of oil or oil ( in English: Petroleum or Oil) from a mixture of hydrocarbons formed in the ground that, despite the presence of oil in the gaseous and solid cases, but this term is usually called a liquid form of it, which is also called crude oil. Oil is formed due to exposure of organic fossils to certain environmental conditions millions of years, and crude oil contains energy stored in the chemical bonds that link hydrogen and carbon atoms, which makes it an ideal source of fuel and energy, and raw material used in the manufacture of many products. More than (30%) of crude oil is extracted in the Middle East, as Saudi Arabia produces (13%) of it, followed by Russia and the United States of America (approximately 12%) each. [1] [2]

Oil derivatives

The oil consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds and liquid organic compounds. To separate these compounds from each other, the crude oil is refined. One of the most common methods of oil refining is fractional distillation, which separates oil derivatives depending on the difference in their boiling point. [3] The main oil derivatives include : gasoline, kerosene, lubricating oil, paraffin wax, diesel, asphalt, petrochemicals, liquefied petroleum gas, and fuel oil. [4]


Gasoline

Gasoline: Transparent liquid used as fuel for cars, due to the high energy from its combustion, and thanks to its ability to rapidly mix with oxygen in the carburetor, it is also used as fuel for pilots, compressors, and in generators. Initially the gasoline was separated from the crude oil by the distillation method, then this method was replaced and the thermal cracking method that is dependent on heat and high pressure was used, then the catalytic cracking method that relies on chemical reactions was used to stimulate the production of a greater amount of gasoline. Gasoline consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons that contain (4-12) carbon atoms per molecule, and when mixed it produces gasoline with different properties. One of the most important properties of gasoline is the octane number, which is a measure of the ability of gasoline to resist early combustion, which increases its efficiency.[5] [4]

Kerosene

Kerosene (English: Kerosene) is a clear or pale yellow liquid bluish liquid, which is the main product of the refining process in terms of production volume, and can be obtained by fractional distillation of oil at a temperature of (60-250) ° C. Kerosene appeared in the beginning of the nineteenth century, and was used in lighting lamps before the discovery of electricity , and it was known in the Arab countries as kerosene. Kerosene is an essential component of jet engine fuel, thanks to its properties, such as: ignition quality, constant combustion inside the engine, low volatility, viscosity , appropriate density, and kerosene types: [6]
  • Kerosene Aircraft: It is divided according to its freezing point into several types, including:
    • Jet Kerosene (JET A): Freezes at -40 ° C.
    • Jet Kerosene (JET A-1): Freezes at -47 ° C.
    • Jet Kerosene (JET B): Freezes at -58 ° C.
    • Jet Kerosene (JP-4) freezes at -60 ° C.
    • Jet Kerosene (JP-5): Freezes at -70 ° C.
    • Jet Kerosene (JP-8)
    • Jet Kerosene (JP-8-100).
  • Kerosene lighting: it is the fuel of gas oil lamps.
  • Kerosene for heating and heating: it is the fuel of domestic gas oil stoves, agricultural heaters and small factories.
  • Kerosene engines and machines: it is the fuel of engines of agricultural equipment, tractors and some water machines.

Lubricant

Lubricating Oils are used to reduce friction between the surfaces of interconnecting bodies, and are also used as motor oils, preventing corrosion and rust , and promoting heat and energy transfer. Lubricating oils are distinguished by their suitable viscosity, thermal and hydraulic stability, and their freezing point is also low, and lubricating oils are separated from the oil at a boiling point ranging between (300-370) Celsius. [4]

Paraffin wax

There is paraffin wax ( in English: Paraffin Wax) in the form of solid wax at normal temperature, and is extracted from crude oil as a byproduct is not desirable, but it has value in itself, and can be marketed several of which uses: [4] [7]
  • Candle making.
  • The manufacture of pens.
  • Make cosmetics, such as: Vaseline.
  • Food preservation, packaging, and presentation.
  • Manufacture of rubber products, paints, regular or lithographic ink, and electric printer wax.

Diesel

Diesel is a derivative of oil that can be obtained by using fractional distillation, and is separated from the oil at a boiling point of between (250-350) ° C. Diesel is used to run gas turbines and external combustion engines. It is also used as fuel in some types of cars, buses, trucks, and locomotives. [4]

Asphalt

Asphalt is a high-viscosity black oil derivative. Asphalt is extracted by the process of distillation of crude oil under high temperatures up to (525) degrees Celsius, and is used to pave the streets and paint the roofs of houses to prevent water leakage. [4]

Petrochemicals

Petrochemicals are chemical products that can be extracted from crude oil and natural gas. Their boiling point ranges from (30-200) degrees Celsius, and they are classified into two groups: olefins, and aromatics. Petrochemical materials are used to manufacture many materials, the most important of which are fertilizers, shoes, waxes, food additives, plastic bottles, detergents, and others. [4]

LPG

Liquefied Petroleum Gas is a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, and it includes propane and butane, [4] and the following are the most important characteristics:
  • Propane: It is a colorless gas, extracted from crude oil or natural gas, and its chemical formula is (C3H8). Propane can be liquefied easily under high pressure, therefore it is found in liquid form in cylinders and tanks, and is used alone or mixed with liquid butane as fuel for domestic and industrial uses, and internal combustion engines. [8]
  • Butane: It is a gaseous hydrocarbon, which is colorless and odorless, and its chemical formula is (C4H10). Butane is added to gasoline auto fuel to increase its volatility. [9]

Fuel oil

Fuel Oils is the heaviest derivative of oil , and is extracted from it by fractional distillation at a temperature ranging from (370-600) degrees Celsius, and is used to heat homes, and as fuel for trucks and ships, and some types of cars, and to run backup electricity generators in offices, in addition to To power plants [4]

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