What is sugar stock



Contents

  • 1 sugar stock
  • 2 How to store sugar in the body
  • 3 The body uses sugar stores
  • 4 glycogen storage disease
    • 4.1 Types of glycogen storage disease
    • 4.2 Symptoms of glycogen storage disease
    • 4.3 Causes of glycogen storage disease
  • 5 References

Sugar stock

The body breaks down the carbohydrates that we eat, converting them into simple sugary compounds known as glucose . Glucose is the main energy source in the body, and the body uses it to carry out its various vital functions, and once the body gets its need from it, it stores the remaining quantities of it in the form of a complex compound Glycogen is known mainly in the liver and muscle cells , [1] and there are small amounts of glycogen in some kidney, brain , and white blood cells. [2]Glycogen is a type of polysaccharide, as each of the glycogen compounds contains approximately 12 molecules of glucose that are connected to each other, so it is destroyed and the release of these molecules when the body needs them, and it should be noted that muscles often use glycogen as a reserve source of energy only for their need, while Glycogen stores in the liver are a backup source that supplies energy throughout the body when needed, especially the brain and spinal cord . [3]

How to store sugar in the body

The amount that the body stores glycogen compounds varies from one person to another, depending on the food it consumes, its physical activity, and the amount of energy that its body naturally burns during rest. It is the insulin hormoneThe main catalyst for the manufacture of glycogen compounds in the body, after eating a meal rich in carbohydrates raises the level of glucose sugar in the blood, and the role of the hormone insulin in stimulating the cells of the body to enter glucose into it for use as a source of energy, and thus reduces its level in the blood, as the hormone insulin stimulates the liver To secrete an enzyme known as glycogen synthase, which is responsible for binding glucose molecules together to form a glycogen compound and store it in the body. It should be noted that liver cells contain a high concentration of glycogen compounds at a rate of approximately 6-8% of the weight of the liver, which is estimated at around 100-120 grams of glycogen, while glycogen makes up only about 1% of the weight of muscle cells, but it is Because the total muscle cell mass in the body exceeds the stages of the weight of the liver, the total amount of glycogen in it is greater than its stock in the liver[3] [2] It is estimated at about 500 grams of glycogen. [4]


Body use for sugar stores

At any time of the day, the body naturally contains approximately 4 grams of glucose sugar approximately, and in the event that you do not eat enough food or make a large physical audience, the levels of sugar begin to gradually decrease in the blood, and it is also accompanied by a decrease in insulin secretion in the body, To raise the level of sugar in the blood, the body intends to produce a special enzyme that breaks down glycogen compounds to supply the body with its glucose need. [3]

Glycogen storage disease

Glycogen storage disease is one of the rare genetic diseases that affect sugar stores. It affects one child out of every 20-25 thousand children born, and is represented by a disorder or lack of one of the enzymes needed to manufacture glycogen in the body, or one of the Enzymes needed to break it down to release glucose into the blood. [5] [6]

Types of glycogen storage disease

Glycogen storage disease includes 13 different types of diseases that differ among them with the parts of the body that affect them, and the symptoms and treatment methods used to control them, and the severity and severity of them, and perhaps the most prominent and most common are the following diseases: [5] [6]
  • Von Gerrick's disease : (English: Gierske disease) is the most common type of glycogen storage disease, and in this type is the imbalance that there is not one of the enzymes needed to break down glycogen in the liver into simple glucose sugars, which causes the accumulation of glycogen compounds in the liver in excess And, symptoms of this disease usually appear in infants from the age of 3-6 months, including: frequent low blood sugar , and flatulence as a result of enlarged liver.
  • Korean disease: (Cori disease) In this case, the imbalance in the body is that there is no other enzyme for breaking down glycogen as well, which leads to its accumulation in both the liver and muscles without being able to take advantage of it completely, and the symptoms of this disease: flatulence, Muscle weakness, growth retardation.
  • Fabry disease: (English: Fabry disease) In this case , the problem is not in their own smashing Algeleokjan enzymes, but one needed to help enzymes to manufacture; they can the bodies of patients with this type of disease storing glycogen glycogen manufacturing , but it is not normal in this case This causes the immune system to attack these abnormal compounds, which causes scarring of the liver tissue and cirrhosis of the liver, in addition to scarring of the heart and muscle tissue .

Symptoms of glycogen storage disease

Varying symptoms of storage disease glycogen from one species to another, some of which affect the liver mainly; may cause swelling of liver as a result of the accumulation Algeleokojin compounds in which without the ability to use, in addition to the decline in the level of sugar in the blood, and symptoms that indicate hypoglycemia: sweating , shivering Mental confusion. As for other types of glycogen storage disease, it mainly affects the muscles of the body. This causes the patient to suffer more frequently from pain and muscle spasms during exercise in particular. Other general symptoms that may appear in people with one type of glycogen storage disease include: [5] [6]
  • General fatigue and physical exhaustion.
  • Slow growth processes.
  • Obesity and overweight.
  • Problems with bleeding and blood clotting.
  • Having kidney, heart, or breathing problems.
  • Weak immune system to fight infection.
  • Suffering from oral ulcers.
  • Gout infection.
  • Intolerance to high temperatures.
  • Easy bruising on the skin.

Causes of glycogen storage disease

Glycogen storage disease is a genetic disorder in the sense that it is transmitted from parents to children, and the disease occurs if there is a defect in a gene responsible for the formation of one of the enzymes needed to manufacture glycogen or use it from storage sites in the body, and it should be noted that most types of glycogen storage disease require its transmission For children, both parents are carriers of the same type of genetic mutation. [5]

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