What does oil consist of?



Contents

  • 1 Crude oil hydrocarbons
  • 2 Chemical constituents of oil
  • 3 color crude oil
  • 4 Form the oil
  • 5 oil refining
  • 6 References

Hydrocarbons component of crude oil

Crude oil consists of hydrocarbons and other chemicals, and the hydrocarbons in crude oil can be classified into four main types: [1]
  • Paraffins, which account for 15-60%.
  • Naphthenes (in English: naphthenes), at a rate of about 30-60%.
  • Aromatics, which account for about 3-30%.
  • Asphalt asphaltics, which forms the remainder.

Light oil can contain about 97% of hydrocarbons, while heavy oil and bitumen can contain only about 50% of hydrocarbons, along with larger amounts of other elements. [2]


Chemical constituents of oil

Oil consists of a group of chemical elements, and these elements are: [2]
  • Carbon is around 85%.
  • Hydrogen by about 13%.
  • Nitrogen, which is 0.5%.
  • Oxygen, and makes up about 1%.
  • Minerals such as iron, nickel and copper by less than 0.1%.

Crude oil color

Crude oil is usually black or dark brown in color, it can also be red, yellow, brownish, or green, and these color differences indicate chemical properties of different sources of crude oil. For example, oil that contains a small amount of Minerals, or sulfur, to a lighter color. [2]

Make up the oil

Geological conditions millions of years ago contributed to be oil, when washed away plants, algae, and plankton to the ocean floor, and shallow seas, and then buried, and came under pressure under millions of tons of sediment, and other layers of plant residue, and then dried up these seas, leaving basins Dry sediment, and these organic materials were exposed in the depths of the bottom of the basin, to pressure between the mantle and the layers on top of very high temperatures and in virtually zero conditions of oxygen, which led to the transformation of organic matter into a waxy substance called kerogen. [2]

As heat and pressure increase over time, the kerogen undergoes a process called dissociation to convert into hydrocarbons, which are chemicals made of hydrogen and carbon, and different levels of heat and pressure can lead to the formation of different forms of hydrocarbons. [2]

Oil refining

The oil goes through several stages in order to refine it , so the first process is distillation, in which the crude oil is heated, then it is inserted into the distillation column, and as the crude oil temperature rises in the distillation column, the components of the crude oil separate into different components called "fractions", which They are assembled separately, and each of these components corresponds to a different type of petroleum product, depending on the temperature at which this component is boiled. [3]

The oil passes a second stage called cracking and refining, where the heavy components resulting from the previous process pass a process called cracking, in order to dismantle these components, and this process produces products with a higher value than the heavy components, and this process is often used to produce gasoline , and jet fuel from the components Heavy oil. [3]

The treatment process is usually used on low value fractions, to produce more gasoline, and the treatment stage stimulates chemical reactions in the presence of pressure, to change the composition of the hydrocarbon chain in the oil, and the production of final petroleum products differs from one refinery to another, but oil refineries are usually designed in the states United Company to produce as much gasoline as possible, due to the high demand from the transportation sector. [3]

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