What are the conditions for oil


  • 1 Conditions for oil formation
  • 2 stage the formation of oil from kerogen
  • 3 types of hydrocarbons
  • 4 References

Conditions for oil formation

Oil is formed as a result of certain geological conditions, and it is formed as a result of the drift of aquatic plants, algae, and plankton after their death millions of years ago towards the seas and oceans, to eventually settle in their bottoms under tons of sediments and plant remains after a period of time, and with the passage of years some seas are exposed to Droughts, leaving large dry basins that are called sedimentary basins, and in great depths under these basins the organic matter between the Earth's curtain, tons of rocks, and sediments that accumulate above them are exposed to intense pressure and heat, and in the absence of oxygen completely, this substance turns into a waxy substance Called kerogen ( in English: Kerogen). [1]

The kerogen substance undergoes a process called fracture, due to its exposure to more pressure and heat, which eventually turns into hydrocarbons, which are chemicals that consist of hydrogen and carbon. These hydrocarbons can be converted into various forms. Depending on the temperature and pressure you are exposed to, such as coal, natural gas, or peat, sedimentary basins are one of the main sources of oil. For example: more than 500 oil deposits were discovered in the Nigerian Delta basin covering lands in each of Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea , Which is one of the most productive oil fields in Africa. [1]

The stage of kerogen oil production

The stage of converting kerogen to oil is known as the mature stage, where the continuous deposition process burys organic materials deeper, high temperatures, and the evolution of geological age with deep burial lead to the production of hydrocarbons, which include the different groups of petroleum compounds That is produced by pyrolysis and cracking that breaks heavy hydrocarbon molecules into less weight molecules. [2]

Depending on the amount and type of organic matter present, hydrocarbons are generated during this stage at depths between 760-4880 m, and at temperatures ranging between 65-150 ° C. This special environment is called an “oil window”, and the window is present. Oil in areas where the temperature is higher than normal in shallow places with less deposits, and the maximum production of hydrocarbons is at a depth between 2000-2900 m, and in depths less than 2900 m a wet gas is formed which is a type of gas that contains liquid hydrocarbons known In the name of natural gas liquids .

Types of hydrocarbons

Oil can be defined (in English: crude oil) as a complex mixture consisting of hydrocarbons and other chemicals, as its components depend on where and how the oil is formed, and the element is chemically analyzed to find out the source of the oil, and hydrocarbons mainly include each of: alkanes Alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons consist of four main types: [3]
  • Paraffins 15-60%.
  • Naphthenes (30-60%)
  • Aromatics: 3-30%.
  • Asphaltics by the remainder of the total.

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