Stages of oil refining


  • 1 crude oil refining process
  • 2 stages of oil refining
    • 2.1 Chapter
    • 2.2 Conversion
    • 2.3 Treatment
  • 3 oil refineries
  • 4 Treating auto fuel
  • 5 Refined petroleum products and their uses
  • 6 References

Crude oil refining process

Crude oil: It is a mixture of light and heavy hydrocarbons that are separated until they are converted into products that can be used by the consumer. Gasoline and diesel that are used as fuel for cars, heating, and natural gas used in cooking are fuel sources extracted from crude oil. Raw mixture of energy products. What must be noted is that the oil varies in its properties and features, some of it is black and sticky, so it contains a large amount of heavy particles, others are light and less dense, and the oil also contains varying proportions of acids and sulfur that may be a cause of poisoning most of the time. [1]

When extracting crude oil from the ground, it is transported and purified to obtain other oil products and derivatives, and then sent to the final consumer or to retailers, which are companies that provide energy to people such as providing home heating, for example, as well as gas stations, and to complete the oil process from the moment Extracting it until it finally reaches the consumer must pass through a set of operations and activities. These operations include the following: [2]
  • First: the process of exploration and production, and through this process, the location of crude oil and its production are discovered, as there is a large group of companies specialized in this field, so that it owns the rights to oil exploration, and there are other companies that provide services and support to exploration companies in the field of drilling.
  • Second: The process of distributing crude oil to refineries through oil pipelines or through special oil tankers, where refineries refine crude oil in order to obtain oil products that can be consumed in many areas.
  • Third: The process of marketing and retailing petroleum derivatives, such as selling them to petrol stations, for example. One of the most famous gas stations that have a trademark specializing in the downstream sector is the Wawa stations chain located in eastern Pennsylvania.

Stages of petroleum refining

Crude oil is processed before it is sent to the consumer in its last form, through three stages: separation , transfer, and processing. Below is a description of each of them: [3]

the classroom

Through this stage, the particles are separated using air distillation , based on their molecular weight during the procedure of this stage, also called the filter stage, in which the oil is heated at the bottom of a column of distillation up to 60 meters in length, at a temperature ranging from 350 ° C - 400 ° C, where high temperatures lead to evaporation and heavy particles stay at the bottom, while fumes rise to the top and molecules condense in liquids at varying temperatures inside the column, only gases reach the top, and when temperatures drop to 150 ° C, fluid collects In trays present Bart Varying various, to produce from this stage the gases at the top, as well as asphalt . [3]

the transfer

After the separation process, the conversion stage by which heavy hydrocarbon molecules are cracked begins at a temperature of 500 ° C, and this stage is called by another name and it is the catalytic cracking because it uses a catalytic substance that speeds up the chemical reaction, where it transfers 75% of the products Heavy, and the amount produced can be increased by adding hydrogen (the hydrocracking process), or by using deep conversion to remove carbon. The more complex and deep the conversion process, the higher its cost, and the higher its energy use. [3]


This stage includes reducing or removing particles that cause corrosion and air pollution, especially sulfur, as the standards set by the European Union regarding sulfur emissions are very strict and severe, so diesel and gasoline in Europe must contain 10 milligrams of sulfur per kilogram of Gasoline or diesel, or ten parts per million, is the largest proportion of allowed diesel and gasoline sold, as these strict laws were applied on January 1, 2009. The desulfurization process is carried out by placing the oil at a temperature of 370 ° C, after which the hydrogen combines The This process is used with sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide, a substance used in many industries. [3]

Petroleum refineries

Petroleum refineries are large industrial complexes, which produce salable oil products and derivatives as they are consumed in many areas, and the advantages of refineries may vary from one place to another, but they are all common to two main processes by which the crude oil is separated into other components, namely distillation. , And the repair process (cracking). [2]

Car fuel treatment

Car fuel is also treated to increase the octane ratio in the fuel , as it is a measure of the resistance of the fuel to detonation. If the octane rate is not high enough, then this will cause an eternal malfunction in the engine. To avoid such malfunction in the vehicle, the octane rating must be raised to 95 or 98. the launch of the process through which the production of high products and high - octane catalytic reform process, using platinum as a catalyst, and is in the process of fuel put at a temperature of 500 C and pressure of $ 1 bar, the transformation of hydrocarbons cyclic saturated hydrocarbons periodic non - saturated, Whereas, the Liras have a high octane rating than non - saturated. [3]

Refined petroleum products and their uses

For each petroleum product produced from processing crude oil, there are several uses, including the following: [3]
  • Liquefied petroleum gas: LPG is used as a fuel for cars and it is also packaged in special packages to be used in several household purposes. It also has other names such as butane and propane.
  • Gasoline and diesel: Gasoline and diesel are used in transportation and as a fuel for vehicles.
  • Kerosene: used as aviation fuel.
  • Bitumen: Also called asphalt, it is used for paving roads.
  • Oils: used for heating and for making lubricants.

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