Oil Report

Oil Report



Contents

  • 1 oil
  • 2 genesis oil
  • 3 Oil composition
  • 4 stages of oil extraction
  • 5 Research and exploration methods
  • 6 oil derivatives
  • 7 importance of oil

The oil

Black gold or crude oil, which is a viscous liquid with a density, whose color ranges from greenish black, and is considered a flammable substance. Oil is extracted from the upper layers of the earth's crust in special ways, and the types of oil vary according to where they are extracted and extracted, so the difference appears greatly in its composition and appearance.

Included in the oil composition are a group of substances that together constitute a mixture of complex hydrocarbons, and also include chemical alkanes, which are very valuable, and global energy statistics showed that oil is one of the most important and most valuable primary energy sources, and the United States of America is at the top of the list of the largest oil-consuming countries around The world, as nearly eighty million barrels are burned daily in various fields.

It is worth noting that the recent times have witnessed a noticeable decline in oil prices, as oil markets suffered in the second half of 2014/2015 a recession in the crude oil in the markets, as oil recorded the lowest price levels in six years and this was due to the negative impact on the economy Among the countries that are totally dependent on him to cover their expenses, among them are Venezuela, as it was actually directed to reduce the process of oil production at the local and global levels, but Saudi Arabia rejected OPEC's decision to reduce global oil production and continued its work as usual.


Origins of oil

The origins of oil return to being the remnants of living organisms that have been subjected to high pressure and heat for a period of time exceeding millions of years, and these organisms begin to decompose under the influence of the previous three factors, and it is indicated that natural gas and oil are produced in the same way, where the gas is located alongside the raw oil material.

Oil arises as a result of burying the quantities of microorganisms in the depths of the oceans after the area of ​​water on the surface of the earth has expanded, and these organisms accumulated and deposited under mud, rocks and sand at very large depths under the ground, and then the stage of formation of sedimentary rocks begins with the enormous pressure and height The temperatures are in the ground, so the sedimentary rock is affected by several chemical processes that result in kerogen. When this waxy substance is exposed to a temperature of one hundred degrees Celsius, the components begin to separate, so the gas (natural gas) separates from the liquid (oil), and even Decomposition of oily liquid must remain buried in the area with a depth of greater than it was, and should be subject to temperatures in excess of two hundred degree heat, thus exposing the material particles of weakness and disintegration and thus degrade.

After a period of time has passed, the liquid and gaseous components begin to move to the higher layers of the earth’s layers through penetration from between the pores of the rocks and their fine cracks. The reasons for the process of transferring these components are due to the presence of water or the huge weight that characterizes the rock layers in the upper layer and thus pressure on The lower layers precipitate the oil from the cracks and pores of the rock.

Liquid (gas) and gaseous (natural gas) components are combined in a type of rock called oil shale or stored rock. This type of rock has two properties that stimulate the components to move and move through it, and these characteristics are the presence of pores and small cracks and openings in it, and the second permeable characteristic that allows Through the passage of liquids within the pores that are bound together horizontally to collide with impermeable rock layers, the quantities of oil accumulate under reservoir rocks or so-called valves, including basements, strings, salt domes, and faults.

Oil composition

The mixture of hydrocarbons is the main constituent of oil, and this mixture is compounds of hydrogen and carbon together, in addition to the chemical elements: oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur, and a small percentage of nickel or vanadium, and the last metallic constituents constitute only one percent of the oil as a whole Also, precious chemical alkanes enter into its composition and number four: methane CH 4 , ethane C 2 H 6 , propane C 3 H 8 , butane C 4 H 10 .

Stages of oil extraction

  • Determine where the oil and its fields are located: Geologists resort to seismic surveys to explore the locations of oil fields, and to explore geologically appropriate places to establish and build oil tanks in them. Through this stage, explosions are underground and waiting for the seismic response to provide information about the geological structure For the intended area, other methods adopted at this point include gravity measurement and magnetic measurement.
  • Drilling wells to reach oil: This stage of the process of extracting oil and extracting it to drilling oil wells by creating a deep and long hole deep in the depths of the earth through a special tool called the oil platform, as researchers work to install a tube made of steel in the artificial hole to complete the process of extraction and confirm the integrity The structural hole, and oil begins to pass through these holes after being installed at the bottom of the well and settled in its base, and at the top of the hole is a so-called "Christmas tree" consisting of pumps and valves connected to each other to control the process of pressure and the flow of oil from its sources.
  • Petroleum extraction and extraction: This stage includes two main steps:
    • Initial extraction: At this stage, the oil tank is stimulated by relying on a set of natural mechanisms, whereby oil is withdrawn from the well and the natural water is put in its place, then moving to the stage of gas spreading and raising it to the top of the tank and shifting to the stage of disseminating dissolved gas in crude oil And get rid of the gravity caused by the movement of the oil material between the upper and lower reservoirs where the wells are, and the percentage of extraction at this stage is between five to fifteen percent.
    • Secondary extraction: As time progresses over the life of the oil well, the pressure factor begins to decrease slowly until it reaches a stage of decline in which the force of the ground pressure becomes unable to move the oil and toss it towards the surface, so geologists resort to the secondary methods of extraction by injecting the oil tanks with water to raise Its ability to compress and stimulate it, and stimulate the natural gas wells to increase the force of the gas lift by injecting it with carbon dioxide or air at the bottom of the active gas well; it works to reduce the level of density of liquid material present in the well, and the recovery rate reaches thirty percent.

Research and exploration methods

  • Stratological Geological Survey.
  • Geophysical aftermarket.
  • Seismic survey (vibratory, seismic).
  • Gravitational method.
  • Magnetic method.
  • Electrical method.
  • Geochemical studies.
  • Exploratory drilling.
  • Well registration method.

Oil derivatives

Oil derivatives are materials that have been refined and extracted from the crude oil. The oil derivatives are produced after the passage of the crude oil through refining operations starting from heating and distillation and then separating the gases, then successive stages to exit a product or derivative from one of the oil derivatives, and among the most famous oil derivatives:
  • benzene.
  • Diesel.
  • Heating fuel.
  • Jet fuel.
  • Kerosene.
  • Ships and factories fuel.
  • Liquid and dry gases.
  • Coke.
  • Asphalt material used for paving roads.
  • Lubricant.

The importance of oil

  • It helps raise the global economic level.
  • The national economy grows.
  • Oil is a clean source of energy.
  • Oil is used in many uses, such as transportation, transportation, etc.
  • It is used in the petrochemical industries.
  • It is important because of its ease of transportation and storage.

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