Oil leakage treatment methods



Contents

  • 1 Definition of oil
  • 2 Oil leakage treatment methods
  • 3 Oil leakage and causes
  • 4 References

Definition of oil

Oil ( in English: Crude oil): is a mixture complex and a mixture of organic molecules called hydrocarbons, which consist primarily of carbon elemental (and denoted by the symbol: C), hydrogen (and has the symbol: H), and produces organic constituent of the oil molecules of marine life The dead, and the remains of living things that lived and were buried millions of years ago, and with the passage of time, these remains were subjected to pressure and heat factors that differ from depth to depth to turn into other materials, such as oil and petroleum. [1] [2]

The type of organic residues, sediments, and environmental factors surrounding the area affect the determination of the components of crude oil, as it may contain a large amount of natural gas, and a leakage of groundwater may occur to the oil well, which leads to its mixing with crude oil and gas, and leads to a change in its components basic, in fact, can not use the oil immediately after extraction without processed; so are separated each element and a component of the oil components separately, which sends the company responsible for the process of extracting crude oil pure; to save it , and stored at pressure levels equal to the pressure of Atmospheric, and the transfer of oil from production sites to the stations responsible for filtering and processing, through pipelines, and fuel trucks, and railroad cars, the process of transfer of products of petroleumOutside and surrounding countries, it is carried out by tanker ships. [2]

Oil leakage treatment methods

The oil spill leads to the occurrence of environmental pollution in the marine waters and the surrounding environment, so the need has emerged to search for elaborate methods that can treat and reduce the risk of these pollutants, and we mention in the following the most important of these methods: [3] [4]
  • The use of microbes and bacteria: Many microorganisms and microorganisms, most of which represent bacteria in different aquatic environments, and when an oil spill occurs in a spot, some types of bacteria and microorganisms may experience developmental disruption, while others are not affected by this deposition, The third type of bacteria is the one that reproduces and grows faster in an oil spill environment. This type of bacteria contributes greatly to reducing the impact of oil spills through what is known as bio-therapy. It is capable of consuming or converting pollutants. It leads to non-harmful by-products, as it consumes some of the ordinary substances, such as: sugars, fats, and proteins, in addition to organic solvents, pesticides, minerals and petroleum compounds .Oil, and these bacteria also contain genes that make proteins, through which the long hydrocarbons that make up the oil materials can be cut into small pieces, and converted into beneficial elements, such as carbon dioxide and water, and despite the importance of bacteria in treating the oil spill, they are Ineffective in the short term, it may take a long time (from weeks to months) to get rid of the oil effects, as these bacteria may suffer from a lack of the main nutrients that contribute to their growth, such as: nitrogen, phosphorous, and oxygen, so the competent authorities By adding additional nutrients to the aquatic environment, to improve bioremediation, which is known as (biocatalysis) process.
  • The use of floating arms: the oil spills increased in the last decades of the twentieth century significantly, so the need for research on modern technologies, which reduces the impact of these spills, helped to continue economic activity without harm, and restore the natural life of the marine environment; where it was done Creating what is known as floating arms that are placed at the place of the oil spill, or at the entrances to the channels and ports. The importance of this technique lies in limiting the spread of the oil slick above the sea surface and preventing it from leaking into the basins and adjacent water channels.
  • Abrasive method using boom arms: This method is one of the most effective methods in quiet waters, as it separates oil and oil materials from water, and puts these materials in special collection tanks to be re-processed.
  • The use of various absorbent materials: that help absorb oil from water . Examples of these materials are straw, volcanic ash, and sawdust derived from plastic. This method is done by spreading one of these materials at the location of the oil spill to accelerate its natural dispersion in the sea. .
  • Manual methods: sometimes up the oil spill to the beaches sandy, rocky beaches closed, and difficult to address this leakage means and previous techniques; so are the use of a number of workers using hand tools or heavy equipment; for the disposal of oil pollutants, and away from the beach.

Oil leakage and causes

Oil spill: is the occurrence of spills of quantities of oil in water environments, and this phenomenon represents one of the biggest problems facing the environment of the seas and oceans due to the increase in oil extraction and production processes, and the use of giant tankers, and thousands of cases occur annually Oil spill resulting from transportation and production, in addition to cases of natural leakage at the bottom of the ocean. [4] The oil leaks into the surrounding environments in various forms, the most important of which are mentioned below: [5]
  • Oil tanker accidents that occur due to overload, which leads to a malfunction in the tanker system, such as an explosion and combustion, because of walking to the shallow water area.
  • Accidents of offshore oil platforms and wells resulting from the unloading and loading of oil on private platforms, and the leakage of oil to the places directly or indirectly.
  • Oil leakage when cleaning oil tankers in the depths of the sea, or near the shore.
  • Oil leak due to an imbalance in the transport or land transport pipelines.
  • An oil spill from oil refineries and refineries and refueling stations.

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