Methods of separating the oil components from each other

Methods of separating the oil components from each other



Contents

  • 1 oil refining
  • 2 ways to separate the oil components from each other
    • 2.1 Physical processes
    • 2.2 Chemical processes
    • 2.3 Treatment and purification processes

Oil refining

Oil is one of the most important natural sources found in the ground, as it is a mixture of complex elements of hydrocarbons, as it is the raw material for many chemical products such as fertilizers, pesticides, plastic tools and other products, and it is the primary source of energy sources as it is used in the production of electric energy necessary to operate Factories, engines, and means of transportation have thus become an essential and irreplaceable thing, but oil in its raw form cannot be taken advantage of, so it must be treated with many processes in order to benefit from it.

Crude oil goes through a set of processes before it is used. These processes are called refining, in which many of the desired compounds are extracted from it by breaking down the crude oils from the oil into original components of carbon and hydrogen molecules, then they are rearranged inside the refineries and converted into products suitable for consumption, Whether it is gas, liquid or solid.

Ways to separate the oil components from each other

  • Physical processes (separation).
  • Chemical processes (conversion).
  • Treatment and purification.

Physical processes

  • The first method: is the distillation method in which the components are separated based on the low boiling point by condensation and cooling, and this process is done by several devices, namely:
    • Primary distillation device: The evaporation and condensation process is carried out under pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure as the oils that have a lower boiling point evaporate faster, and thus these oils are collected and this process produces six products: (gas cookers, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, diesel, diesel).
    • Vacuum distillation device: This process is under low pressure below atmospheric pressure and results in asphalt and lubricating oils.
  • The second method: is the method of extracting solvents, which is carried out by using solvents to separate a mixture of components, and depends on the chemical type (organic materials dissolve with organic solvents and inorganic materials dissolve with inorganic solvents), and these solvents are propane, benzol, and toluene, and results from this process Light, medium and heavy oils.
  • The third method: It is refrigerated, in which gases and fuel are separated and gasoline is fixed.

Chemical processes

These operations are carried out under the influence of pressure and heat, or by catalysts, in which the compounds produced from the distillation process are converted into products suitable for use. These processes include thermal cracking, catalytic cracking, and hydrogenous cracking.

Processing and purification processes

It is the last operations of oil products that are physical or chemical, in which hydrogen sulfide, nitrogenous substances and impurities in the oil are removed.

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