How was oil discovered?



Contents

  • 1 Definition of oil
  • 2 ways to discover oil
  • 3 Human discovery of oil
  • 4 Uses of oil
  • 5 Oil spill and its effects
  • 6 References

Definition of oil

Oil: It is a complex mixture consisting of different organic molecules called hydrocarbons (hydrogen and carbon), which formed from dead marine life and the remains of living organisms that lived millions of years ago and are exposed to pressure and heat factors, and crude oil may differ in composition from one place to another because of the diversity of living organisms , Sediments, and other environmental factors involved in oil formation. Crude oil forms under the ground as a result of exposure to various pressures depending on the depth, and can contain a large amount of natural gas, and there may also be a flow of groundwater to the oil well to mix with crude oil and gas. During the extraction process, each component is separated separately, as the crude oil is sentClean storage at close pressure to the atmosphere, as it is transported from production sites to processing plants and refineries by pipelines, transport trucks, and rail cars, and oil products are transported abroad by tanker ships of 100,000 barrels to more than 3,000,000 barrels. Crude oil is classified into sweet or sour based on the level of sulfur in it, as it may contain sulfur or compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, and excess sulfur is removed in the crude oil during the refining process, because the sulfur oxides released into the atmosphere during the combustion of the oil are polluted Major for the environment. [1] [2]

Ways to discover oil

The presence of oil in a region is discovered through several operations that are not limited to drilling only. These operations are mentioned below: [3]

  • Geological survey: The geologist knows if the geological conditions in the study area have helped to form oil , and searches for any traces of oil on the external surface, and the geologist also maps a map showing the inclination, direction, and information about the terrain of the area, and all the wells in it and ways Drainage, as well as using the method of aerial photography by plane, where it flies over the study area and the imaging device takes quick pictures covering the entire region, thus obtaining a three-dimensional image that is useful in observing slope of rocks and distinguishing bends and faults, By putting the pictures together, we get full information about the study area.
  • Geophysical survey: It is done by using several methods, namely:
    • Method of measuring the Earth 's gravity: is used very accurate devices to measure changes in the Earth 's gravity as a Jerafimatr force, and the intensity varies gravity from place to place depending on several factors including: high place on the surface of the earth, and the shape of the earth at the poles, and the power of expulsion central resulting from the rotation of the Earth , And the difference in the density of rocks in the Earth's crust below the observation point. Using this method, it is possible to accurately identify the nature of formations in the depths.
    • Vibration measurement method: This method is done by creating industrial earthquakes by detonating quantities of explosive materials, which leads to the generation of waves of vibrations, so the observer records the frequencies of the waves generated through the seismograph, noting that the speed of the wave flow varies according to the type of rock, By measuring the speed of the waves in the different layers, it is possible to know the type of rock and its depth in the study area.
    • Magnetometry method: Differences in magnetic field values ​​can be measured using an aircraft-powered magnetometer, and by knowing the differences in magnetic field values ​​we can learn about the different configurations that lie below the Earth's surface.
  • Drilling operations: which are divided into three methods: the hammering method, the rotational method, and the turbine drilling method, and each of these methods has a specific use in specific conditions such as depth and type of rock in the study area, and drilling operations help to identify the physical and chemical properties of the rocks penetrated by the drilling machines By analyzing the natural properties of the rocks using certain criteria such as the degree of porosity and liquid contents, and when it is found that the effects of an oil material on the drilling machine, then the necessary drilling work can be determined and its thickness determined to begin the extraction process.

Human discovery of oil

The presence of oil was discovered for the first time in the fourth century AD when Chinese workers dug the first oil well in the People's Republic of China, where oil was burned to produce salt through the evaporation of salt water, and in the eighth century AD oil bitumen was used to pave new roads in Baghdad And, in the ninth century AD, Azerbaijan dug oil fields to obtain oil in an economical way. By the tenth century AD, the Chinese used bamboo tubes to connect water from the sources of salt water. The modern history of oil begins in the year 1853 AD when the process of distillation of oil was obtained to obtain kerosene. The oil industry was first made in America in 1859 CE thanks to the Edwin Drake discovery of oil. In 1861 AD the first distillery was built in Russia in the natural oil field, and in Canada has discovered large oil fields that have been developed and exploited industrially. The presence of oil was discovered in Saudi ArabiaOn March 3, 1938 AD, which later became one of the largest oil exporters in the world, this discovery changed the physical, human, and political geography of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Middle East, and the world, where the Saudi economy was mainly dependent on tourism revenue and Muslim reception to perform the Hajj rituals. And Umrah until the discovery of oil came to establish a strong infrastructure and strengthen diplomatic relations with other countries, so that oil would constitute 92% of the general budget of Saudi Arabia. [4] [3]

Oil uses

Crude oil is used in many areas, but it must be processed and refined to make it usable oil products. Among the most important of these petroleum products: [1]
  • benzene.
  • Diesel.
  • Jet fuel.
  • Asphalt.
  • Plastic.
  • Synthetic fibers.
  • makeup.
  • Smartphones and sunglasses.

Oil spill and its effects

The process of oil extraction and production leads to the generation of polluted and harmful waste to the environment, as the extraction of marine oil causes damage to marine organisms and affects their environment, and may kill marine plants on the sea floor, and combustion of oil leads to the emission of carbon dioxide gas, which plays an important role in the warming phenomenon global and, over time , increased the need for global oil and increased excavation operations, and increased transfers of oil from one location to another, and led this increase to the appearance of large amounts of pollutants into the sea, rivers, and oceans due to incidents of leakage in oil tankers, has been shown that health To control marine pollutionOr prevent its spread, because it is a floating and mobile danger, and several factors control it, the most important of which are: wind direction, tidal factors, and intensity of waves, and pollutants may travel by polluted fish from one place to another. [5]

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