How to separate oil derivatives



Contents

  • 1 method of separating oil derivatives
  • 2 The conversion process
  • 3 Processing process
  • 4 Oil derivatives and their uses
  • 5 References

How to separate oil derivatives

Have oil crude liquid dark viscous, not fit for use before processing, which consists of a mixture of different chemicals called hydrocarbons, [1] and are separation or the so - called process of distillation by heating the oil inside the oven, to be separated hydrocarbons by boiling point, and is This process is carried out inside large towers, so that the heated oil vapors rise and are separated into particles each according to its weight and boiling point, and through this process the lighter molecules rise to the top of the tower before they condense and become liquid, like gasoline, while heavy particles are deposited at the bottom because they condense early , [2] Thus , the separation and extraction of liquids for making gasoline, paraffin, and diesel fuel. [1]

The conversion process

Conversion is the process of changing the type of hydrocarbon to another type to get to the desired product, and these processes include cracking, in which the heavier and lower value molecules are taken and converted into lighter molecules, and heat and pressure are used in this process, and from this Processes are also the alkylation process, which is the opposite of the cracking process, in which secondary molecules and gases are combined to form larger hydrocarbons. [2]


Treatment process

It is the last practical treatment in oil refining, and the products manufactured are combined to form different levels of octane, the properties of vapor pressure, and the characteristics of the products for use in harsh environments. Examples of treatment include removing sulfur from diesel fuel, which is necessary to comply with the guidelines The air is clean, and the treatment process takes the longest time during the refining process. [2]

Oil derivatives and their uses

One barrel of crude oil can produce the following components: [2]
  • 42% gasoline.
  • 22% diesel.
  • 9% jet fuel.
  • 5% fuel oil.
  • 4% liquefied petroleum gases.
  • 18% other products.

Petroleum derivatives include both of the following: [3]
  • Transportation fuel.
  • Fuel oils for heating and electricity generation.
  • Asphalt, and road oil.
  • The primary materials for making chemical, plastic and synthetic materials that are used in daily life.

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