How to separate oil derivatives from each other



Contents

  • 1 oil refining
  • 2 The oil components are separated
    • 2.1 Physical processes
    • 2.2 Chemical processes
    • 2.3 Purification or treatment

Oil refining

Oil is raw materials that are extracted from the ground, which are not useful in their natural state, and cannot be used in human industries, but after extracting them from the ground is subject to what is called refining, so oil refining is the operations that the oil is exposed to in order to convert it from its raw form Compounds that are human usable, as these components are broken, fragmented and separated to obtain the original components, and then grouped together to form new groups.

Separation of oil components

Crude oil extracted from the ground is subjected to several processes that result in new compounds, which may be in a gaseous, liquid, or solid state, and the components are separated from each other through three main stages, and they are arranged as follows:


Physical processes

Several methods can be used to separate the oil components in the first stage, the most famous of which are:
  • Distillation: The boiling or condensation method is used to separate lighter particles from raw materials with lower boiling points, and the primary process, ie atmospheric, distillation can be used to obtain some compounds, or distillation under vacuum pressure, to obtain other compounds.
  • Solvent extraction: Where special solvents are used that can separate the components of the raw materials from each other depending on the chemical composition of the molecules, the resulting compounds must be very pure, and must meet the international standard specifications, given its dangerous role in all uses.
  • Cooling: where the cooling method is used to harden certain parts of the materials in the mixture, and separate from the liquid, including:
    • Gas separation process.
    • Gasoline fixation process.
    • Gasoline actinic process.

Chemical processes

Chemical substances are added in this stage to change the hydrocarbon molecules present in the oil, and they are carried out under the influence of heat and pressure or by auxiliary factors, the aim of which is to increase the quantity and quality of car fuel and jets, and the chemical stage includes:
  • Thermal transfer processes.
  • The cracking process using the catalyst.
  • Catalytic reform of gasoline.
  • Oil gas operations.

Purification or treatment

This stage is the final stage for the separation of oil derivatives from each other, and is carried out using physical or chemical processes, such as: the use of caustic soda solution; to purify the gas and gasoline from hydrogen sulfide, or the use of concentrated sulfuric acid to purify the kerosene from sulfur and aromatic substances that cause escalation Black smoke, jet fuel and others. Hydrogen gas is also used to remove many impurities, or to use liquid to absorb hydrogen sulfide if the percentage is large, because it helps to corrode machinery and equipment.

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