How to refine crude oil



Contents

  • 1 distillation
  • 2 catalytic cracking
  • 3 Processing and mixing products
  • 4 References

distillation

In the distillation process , the crude oil is heated , then it is inserted into the distillation tube, so the crude oil is separated into different parts when the temperature of the crude oil increases in the distillation tube, and these parts are collected separately if they are formed, where each part is appropriate for a product Various of petroleum products, which vary according to the temperature at which each component of the crude oil boils. [1]

Catalytic cracking

Pass materials , petroleum crude through crushing catalytic phase ( in English: Catalytic Cracking), which uses heat, pressure, and other factors stimulating, to convert heavy parts resulting from the distillation process to lighter materials, which are classified as materials and filter materials of high value such as gasoline, and the distillation of composite materials, The raw materials resulting from this process include gaseous petroleum products resulting from various distillation processes, whose boiling point range is from about 340 to 540 ° C. [2]


Treated and mixed products

Treating and Blending the Fractions process in the treatment and mixing of products. The distilled parts are chemically treated to get rid of impurities in them, such as organic compounds that include sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, dissolved minerals, water, and inorganic salts. The treatment is carried out by Pass the parts from the previous stages through a column of sulfuric acid, which removes the unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain bilateral bonds between two carbon atoms, oxygen compounds, nitrogen compounds, and the remaining solids, such as asphalt, and tar, then these materials pass through Absorbent column contains dried materials that dry the water from these materials. Sulfur and hydrogen sulfide gases are treated with these materials to remove sulfur and sulfur compounds from them, these materials are cooled, and then mixed together to form different products. Examples of its derivatives include :[3]
  • Various gasoline products, with or without additives.
  • Lubricating oils of different weights and levels.
  • Kerosene of various grades.
  • Jet fuel.
  • Diesel fuel.
  • Chemicals of various levels for plastics, and other polymers

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