How to make oil

How to make oil



Contents

  • 1 oil
  • 2 oil formation
  • 3 theories of oil formation
    • 3.1 Organic theory
    • 3.2 Metallic theory
    • 3.3 Chemical theory
  • 4 History of oil
  • 5 Environmental impacts of oil
  • 6 Oil depletion

The oil

Oil, or what is called "black gold", is considered one of the most important sources of non-renewable energy, on which all aspects of life in countries are based, whether developed or not, and it is considered one of the most important sources of transportation and also includes the petroleum and chemical industries and is included in the manufacture of plastics and industrial fibers and all Walks of modern industries, including factories and companies.

Oil composition

If we wanted to talk about the formation of oil, then of course we will talk about the millions of years that preceded us. The land at that time was filled with living creatures that filled land and sea. Then, after the death of these creatures, they were buried in the ground and then transformed by many types of bacteria. Anaerobic, which can live in the ground, to form a layer of decomposed organic matter and decomposed clay. As a result of the high pressure and heat that increases with the passage of time, these decomposing substances have turned into what is now called oil.


Theories of oil formation

The scholars differed on the interpretation of how oil was formed, and they were divided into three different theories, as follows:

Organic theory

The owners of this theory talk about the formation of oil from the remains of dead living organisms millions of years ago, whether these animal or vegetable creatures, especially those that lived in the ocean floor that mixed with the sand of the oceans and the minerals present in them, and with the passage of time they turned into sedimentary rocks to be exposed to high pressures and temperatures Tremendous to decompose the remains of organic matter inside these rocks and turn into hydrocarbon materials to turn these materials into oil and gas as a result of the enormous chemical reactions that occurred over the distant years, and this theory is adopted by many contemporary scholars for many reasons. B.

Mineral theory

In short, the chemical theory says that the oil of its origin is not decomposing organic matter but is attributed to minerals, and that it is through exposure of metal carbide minerals to dense water vapor, but this theory was not accepted by many scientists because it is difficult to imagine the presence of large quantities of residue Metal carbides to produce for us these huge quantities of oil that were produced and which countries are also expected to produce.

Chemical theory

This theory assumes that there is a union between hydrogen and carbon through which the so-called hydrocarbons were formed in the ground of the earth and that turned into oil, which with the passage of time began to appear above the surface of the earth by exiting through various ground cracks and wells were drilled later, and from evidence that some believe Scientists say that this theory proves that there are more than two-thirds of the world's oil reserves in a specific region which is the Persian Gulf, as some scientists assert that there is no possibility of huge quantities of organic organisms in this part of the world and they thus deny categorically deny the organic theory, and this may prove that there are many From Oil is present in different parts of the world, which has led to an increase in the depth of some search for oil wells have reached more than one thousand and five hundred meters deep in the ground.

History of oil

China is the first country in history to drill oil wells, as it was extracted for one goal which is to help find salt by evaporation of salt water, before the fourth century AD, then in 1835 AD the process of oil distillation was discovered, which is the economic start and the qualitative shift in the production of Oil and this process was aimed at obtaining kerosene, and this industry was limited only to obtain kerosene and oil to light the lamps, then with the beginning of the twentieth century the invention of internal combustion engines led to the oil industry and the massive industrial revolution that occurred in the world and Western countries in particular, and began to Oil takes place ahead of coal, which was the basis of the industry.

Environmental impacts of oil

Oil has many different effects on the environment, as it is considered one of the most important sources polluting the environment. When oil is burned, this leads to the emission of carbon dioxide, which is a harmful pollutant to the surrounding environment and man, which led to what is known globally as the greenhouse effect, which scientists consider responsible for changing weather conditions. Universality from a decrease in temperature and its noticeable rise globally. Scientists have discovered a hole in the ozone layer that protects us from the sun's ultraviolet rays harmful to humans, animals and plants.

Oil depletion

The current oil consumption is approximately 3.5 billion tons annually, which will lead to oil depletion during a period not so long ago, scientists may expect during 2050 AD, but this depletion will not include all countries, because the Arab Gulf will continue to produce beyond the year 2080 AD, but the expected depletion market includes United States, Canada, and Norway.

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