How to make oil



Contents

  • 1 oil formation
  • 2 oil refining
  • 3 After extraction
  • 4 References

Oil composition

Oil is formed as a result of the geological factors represented in the following stages: [1]
  • After the death of aquatic plants, algae and plankton millions of years ago, they were lying on the bottom of the seas and oceans under tons of sediments and plant remains.
  • Over the years the ancient seas are subject to drought and sedimentary basins remain dry, and in these basins organic materials are buried between the two layers of the Earth's membrane (Earth's mantle) and a layer of tons of rocks and sediments under harsh conditions of very high temperatures, high pressure and lack of To oxygen, and it turns into a waxy substance called kerogen.
  • With the passage of time and its continued exposure to pressure and heat, the kerogen material is converted to hydrocarbons through its passage within a specific process and conversion process, and since the hydrocarbons are composed of carbon and hydrogen elements, it can be transformed and formed in more than one compound according to the temperature and pressure to which it is exposed, and coal is formed Or natural gas or oil and others.

Oil refining

Refining oil means the process of converting extracted crude oil into materials that can be used by separating the hydrocarbon molecules into several stages: [2]
  • Separation: The process of separating the hydrocarbons is the same as the distillation process, in which the hydrocarbons are separated into parts by heating them in an oven for certain temperatures, and in the towers the oil fumes are separated based on their weight and boiling point, so the lighter gas molecules including gasoline rise to the top of the tower before it They are condensed, while the heavier particles remain at the bottom of the tower because they condense quickly.
  • Conversion: where hydrocarbons are converted from one type to another through the cracking process to break down a heavy hydrocarbon to a lighter one, or the alkylation process may be used to collect small and light hydrocarbons to form a heavier compound, and both processes are subject to use Pressure and temperature.
  • Processing: The treatment is the most technical stage in the oil purification process, and the most time-consuming, and this stage is based on the collection of all products that have been processed to produce different levels of octane, and the vapor pressure with different properties, and the addition of special features for vehicles that are used in environments Cruel.

After extraction

After the oil is extracted and purified, it is transferred to the final beneficiary, whether they are merchants or final consumers, and this is done by specific companies that fall within several categories. These companies may be licensed to carry out exploration, drilling, and extraction operations, or they may be responsible for transferring the extracted oil to refining and refining refineries to convert it. Into usable materials and then distribute them to merchants, or these companies may only be responsible for retail petroleum sales such as petrol stations . [3]

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