How to extract oil


  • 1 oil extraction
  • 2 Extracting oil from oil rocks
  • 3 The beginning of oil formation
  • 4 References

Oil extraction

The oil stock is present as oil, or gas confined in the deaf rock, where it is extracted when all of the oil and gas floats above the surface of the water under the ground, and is restricted by oil traps, and it is worth noting that the trap is composed of a tank topped by a thick rock cover, or a porous area Low, or non-porous, to restrict hydrocarbons. As for oil extraction, it is carried out by drilling wells. There are three stages to extract oil stocks, as follows: [1]
  • The first stage: It starts when the wells are produced due to the natural energy from the expansion of gas and water, which leads to the fluid being pushed to the well hole, and raised to the surface. It is worth noting that most of the oil reserves are produced during the initial extraction stage.
  • The second stage: Industrial energy is applied to raise liquids to the surface by injecting gas to raise liquids to the surface, or installing a pump under the surface.
  • The third stage: In that auxiliary means are added to increase the fluid movement in the oil reservoirs inside the tank, in addition to applying secondary techniques, and this is done by introducing additional heat to reduce the viscosity, and improve its ability to flow to the wellbore,

Extracting oil from oil rocks

The process of extracting crude oil from the rocks is more difficult than extracting it from the ground, where the oil shale is extracted by mining, after which the oil shale is distilled , where the rocks are exposed to high temperatures without the presence of oxygen, which leads to a chemical change in its structure, and is called This process is pyrolysis, then the kerogen inside the fossil fuel begins to run between temperatures of 343-371 ° C, after which it is separated from the rocks, and the resulting material can be refined to obtain industrial crude oil, and this process is called surface distillation. [2]

The beginning of oil formation

Oil formed millions of years ago when plants, algae, and plankton drifted into the shallow oceans and seas, and over time they were buried, crushed under millions of tons of sediments, and after the seas dried out, the dry basins remained, they were called sedimentary basins, and then the organic matter compressed between the land cover and millions of tons From the rocks and sediments above it, and with high temperatures, and in the absence of almost oxygen, the organic matter turned into a waxy substance called kerogen, and with more heat, time, and pressure, a process of hardening cracking (in English: catagenesis) of the kerogen occurred, and turned into a hydrate. Carbonate. [3]

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