How to extract oil



Contents

  • 1 oil
  • 2 method of oil extraction
    • 2.1 Determining his whereabouts
    • 2.2 Oil well drilling
    • 2.3 Oil extraction
    • 2.4 Oil refining

The oil

The oil, or so-called black gold or tar, is a thick green-black liquid, with a high density and flammable, and is found in the upper layers of the earth's crust, and includes a group of different alkanes that form a group of hydrocarbons.

Oil is considered one of the most important primary energy sources used in electricity production, and the manufacture of many chemical products such as pesticides, plastics and many others. In this article, we will talk about the stages of oil extraction.

How to extract oil

Determine his whereabouts

The oil is found in very low depths below the surface of the earth, or the oceans, or seas. In the past, exploratory wells were dug in the places where it is expected to be found, and primitive methods are currently being used to test its presence under the surface of the earth, where the detonation of the underground or ocean scales takes place Seismicity is in place, after which petroleum clusters are located, and modern technologies currently being used include: the use of magnetic methods, or aerial photography of planes, sonar devices, and satellites.


Oil well drilling

The oil wells are drilled through the metal tube technology, by entering the spiral tubes in a row, and by knocking them down; to enter well into the ground, and it is used at this stage: steam, acids, and water to keep the oil pressure constant.

Oil extraction

This is done in three stages, namely:
  • Initial recovery stage: extracting an estimated 15% of the content of the oil well, and this step is low operating costs, where the pressure in the well is severe, and sufficient to extract oil from the ground without using any other industrial means.
  • Secondary recovery stage: extraction of an estimated 45% of the oil well content, and in this step the well pressure decreases, and thus there is a need to use additional industrial means to withdraw it from the well.
  • The arduous extraction stage: In this stage, the oil has a very high viscosity, as it is difficult to extract it using electrical turbines, so heat is used to reduce its viscosity, through the use of gas that is extracted from the well to generate electrical energy, where hot water vapor is pushed into the ground, Thus increasing its temperature and reducing its viscosity, which facilitates the process of extracting it from the well.

Oil refining

This is done by separating the different oil derivatives through the distillation process, where it is exposed to a high temperature, to heat it, and to separate each compound at a specific temperature, i.e. the heavy compounds are separated at a low temperature, then extracted through low openings at the bottom of the distillation tower, either The gaseous compounds are extracted through holes at the top of the tower.

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