How to discover oil



Contents

  • 1 Definition of oil
  • 2 The beginning of man’s discovery of oil
  • 3 The discovery of oil in the Arab countries
  • 4 References

Definition of oil

Oil can be defined as a complex mixture of different organic molecules called hydrocarbons, representing carbon and hydrogen, and hydrocarbons were formed from the dead marine life and the remains of living organisms that lived millions of years ago, where they were exposed to stress factors, heat, and the location of crude oil may differ from where This is due to the diversity of living organisms, sediments, and other environmental factors that participate in the formation of oil. Crude oil is formed under the ground as a result of exposure to various pressures depending on depth, and it can contain a large amount of natural gas. What can the flow of underground water happens to the oil well to mingle with crude oil, gas, and during the process of extraction is separated by each component separately; which sends crude oilClean storage at close pressure to the atmosphere, as it is transported from production sites to processing plants and refineries by pipelines, transport trucks, and rail cars, and oil products are transported abroad by tankers that accommodate about 100,000 barrels to more than 3,000,000 barrels, and oil is classified Crude to sweet, or acid, depending on the level of sulfur in it, may contain sulfur, or on compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, then the excess sulfur in the crude oil is removed during the refining process, because the sulfur oxides released into the atmosphere during Spilled oil is a major polluter of the environment . [1] [2]

Beginning of human discovery of oil

The existence of oil was discovered for the first time in the fourth century AD, when Chinese workers drilled the first oil well in the People's Republic of China , where oil was burned to produce salt through the evaporation of salt water, and in the eighth century AD, oil bitumen was used in the paving of new roads in Baghdad In the ninth century AD, Azerbaijan dug oil fields to obtain oil in an economic way. By the tenth century AD, the Chinese used bamboo tubes to deliver water from the sources of salt water, and the modern history of oil begins in 1853 AD, when the discovery of Yeh oil distillation; for kerosene material, as has the oil industry for the first time in America in 1859, thanks to the discovery of Edwin Drake Oil, and in 1861, was built the first distillation plant in RussiaIn the natural oil field, as well as large oil fields were discovered in 1910 AD, in Canada, and in the East Indies, Iran , Venezuela, and Mexico, where they were developed and exploited industrially. [3]


The discovery of oil in the Arab countries

The oil exploration operations continued until it reached the Arab countries, and we mention the following how to discover the presence of oil in some Arab countries: [4] [5]
  • Egypt: The presence of oil was discovered for the first time in Egypt in 1868 AD, in the region of "Gisma" on the western coast of the Gulf of Suez, and drilling and drilling operations began in 1885 AD, while oil production began in 1909 AD, and exploration and research operations also extended to the west The Egyptian desert, the "Nile Delta" region, and the "Gulf of Suez Basin", is the main source of oil in Egypt, where it produces approximately 90% of the country's oil.
  • Iraq: The Iraq of the countries most oil producers in the Arab world, has begun oil exploration operations in which , in 1925, through the Iraq Petroleum Company, discovered "Kirkuk" field in 1927, and the field "Zubair" in 1948, and the field "Rumaila" In 1953 AD, and the "Majnoon" field in 1977 AD, in addition to some other European and American companies, which were sharing shares with the Iraqi company, except that in 1975 AD, the Iraqi government nationalized the oil, so that it can be searched and produced directly, by the "National Oil Company".
  • Saudi Arabia: The presence of oil in Saudi Arabia was discovered on March 3, 1938, and later became one of the largest exporters of oil in the world. "Ghawar" and "field Safaniya , " has changed these discoveries of natural geography, human, political and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Middle East and the world; where the economy of Saudi Arabia relies heavily on tourism revenue, and the enthusiasm of Muslims to perform the rituals of Hajj and Umrah, that came the discovery of oil ; Resulting To establish a strong infrastructure, and to enhance diplomatic relations with other countries, so that oil constitutes 92% of the general budget of Saudi Arabia.
  • Bahrain: The first oil discovery was made in Bahrain in 1932, by the American company (English: satndard oil of california), which was granted the concession to explore for oil in all of Bahrain.
  • Kuwait: Kuwait is considered one of the largest oil producers in the Gulf region, and the discovery of oil in commercial quantities began in Kuwait in 1938 AD, in the “Burgan Al Kabir” field, by “Kuwait Oil Company Limited”, which was granted concession in 1934 AD, and actual production was achieved For oil in 1946.
  • United Arab Emirates: The first oil discovery in the Emirates was made in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in 1950 AD by the Iraq Petroleum Company, and oil was explored in underwater areas by the French and British Petroleum Company , and the first oil discovery was in Dubai in 1966. Where it was known as the "Fatih" field, and the discovery of another field was achieved in the south, and it was called "Fatih Southwest", and the actual production of oil in the Emirates began in 1969 AD.
  • Qatar: The first oil field was discovered in Qatar in 1938, known as the "Smoke", where the Anglo-Iranian company undertook the process of researching and extracting oil, and three large fields were discovered in marine areas, and they produce huge quantities of oil to the present time. .

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