How oil is made



Contents

  • 1 oil
  • 2 be oil
    • 2.1 The organic theory of oil formation
    • 2.2 Inorganic theory of oil formation
  • 3 The oil industry
  • 4 Uses of oil in daily life
  • 5 oil fields
  • 6 Environmental impacts of oil
  • 7 References

The oil

Oil ( in English: Oil) is a liquid thick black , which is a resource non - renewable although provided, which consists of hydrogen and carbon essentially, and contains other elements of sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, known as crude oil ( in English: crude oil) as well, Or petroleum (English: petroleum), [1] although petroleum as a technical term includes natural gas , and the solid form known as bitumen (English: bitumen) [2]

Oil played a big role in the progress of the industrial revolution in the modern era, as its production and consumption had a vital role in establishing international relations, and it is an important factor in considering countries rich or poor. [2]


Oil formation

Theoretical theory of oil formation

The formation of oil has gone through a biological interpretation in several steps, which are: [3]
  • Oil mainly consists of the remains of plants and small animals, or so-called plankton, that died 10 million years ago to 600 million years ago at sea.
  • These beings were buried after their death in the sand and mud on the sea floor, and then buried after being decomposed in the sedimentary layers over the years.
  • Microorganisms have decomposed the organic materials in these layers into carbon- rich compounds under conditions where there is no oxygen or is present in very small quantities, which have formed organic layers.
  • The organic materials mixed in the sediments formed fine-grained rocks, or what is known as the source rock.
  • Significant pressure and heat was formed on the source rocks as a result of the deposition of many new sedimentary layers on top of them, which led to the conversion of their organic materials to crude oil and natural gas.
  • It moves oil from the source rocks to the whereabouts of limestone or sandstones, which are more porous and thicker, and are known as reservoir rock (English: reservoir rock).
  • Ground movements formed the cause of limiting the oil and natural gas found in the reservoir rocks between impermeable rock layers or cap rocks such as granite or marble . These movements include folding, cracking, and upward pressure.

Inorganic theory of oil

The inorganic theory of oil formation (English: Abiotic Theory) is an alternative theory that may influence estimates of future reserves of it. According to this theory, oil consists of inorganic substances found in the depths of the earth's crust , and is not considered a fossil fuel at all, and Russian and Ukrainian scientists are considered the first to He proposed this theory in the 1950s, as successful exploratory pits were drilled by relying on this theory in many regions such as the Caspian region and western Siberia. [4]

The oil industry

The oil industry and gas world power employs hundreds of thousands of workers all over the world, and the largest industry sector in which in terms of dollar value, which pumped hundreds of billions annually, and according to the industry dynamically in the gross national, [5] The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, The United States of America is the largest oil producer in the world, with each producing approximately 13% of total world production, and Russia is third in production, with more than 12% of the world's total oil production. [6]

Demand for oil and its consumption has increased significantly over the past decades, and the United States of America is the consumer of one-fifth of the world's total oil consumption, and its largest consumer in the world despite its continuous decline in consumption since 2005. [6]

The uses of oil in everyday life

Oil is used in many areas of daily life, including the following: [7]
  • Oil is a source of fuel for different modes of transportation, such as cars, planes, and trucks, which support the economy and modern lifestyle.
  • Secondary products resulting from oil refining can be used to produce various chemicals and plastics, in addition to many other industries such as asphalt, candles, and lubricating oils, and most pesticides and many fertilizers are made from oil, or its derivatives.
  • The oil is partly used in making many sports equipment such as golf bags, modern balls, tennis rackets, basketball, and artificial turf, as well as soccer balls and soccer fields. [8]
  • Oil is used to make perfumes , deodorants, and antiperspirants, as well as to make contact lenses. [8]
  • Manufacture of anti-wrinkle clothing. The polyester fabric in the oil refinery forms the basis for manufacturing clothes such as pants, wrinkle-resistant shirts, and stains. Recycling may also result in new, high-quality polyester fibers. [9]

oil fields

Two basic principles apply to the global production of petroleum. The first is that most petroleum is found in a few large fields, since most of the fields discovered are small fields, and the second is that the average size of the fields discovered, and the amount of oil in each of them decreases with the progress of exploration operations, where Large fields are discovered first. The first oil well was established in the year 1859 AD. Then, after the discovery of oil wells, it pursues approximately 50,000 oil wells, more than 90% of which are not affecting world oil production. [2]

Environmental impacts of oil

Oil is a negative factor on the environment in spite of its great importance as fuel, as it has many damages, such as affecting the climate due to carbon dioxide resulting from the burning of oil and oil products, and the impact on the environment in general as a result of drilling, transportation, refining , and the destruction of lands and regions Which are drilling in, or which oil is leaking, and other damages. [10]

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