How oil is formed in the ground


  • 1 The oil shall be in the ground
  • 2 conditions of oil formation
  • 3 separate the oil components
  • 4 References

The oil is in the ground

Oil is considered a necessary product in human life, and it is formed when decomposing the remnants of ancient marine organisms, such as: plants, algae, and bacteria, and this is why it is called fossil fuel. With which they are buried millions of years ago in the depths of the seas and oceans upon their death, and this is what led to the entrapment and isolation of organic matter, and with the rise in temperature and pressure on them, the remains of these creatures turned into oil. [1]

Conditions of oil formation

Geological conditions contributed to be oil, where drifting plants, algae, and plankton in the seas and oceans for millions of years, and was buried under millions of tons of sediment, and when the old dry seas are the so - called basin sedimentary ( in English: sedimentary basins), also contributed to high temperatures, The lack of oxygen, and the intense pressure in converting the organic matter into a waxy substance called kerogen in the depths of the floor of the basin, and turning it into hydrocarbons, where different temperatures can produce different types of hydrocarbons, such as: coal, peat, and natural gas. [1]Hydrocarbons are the main component of oil, as gas and oil consist of about 95% of the hydrogen and carbon molecules, and hydrocarbons contain huge amounts of chemical energy in their chemical bonds, which made them the main reason for making oil a required substance. [2]

Separation of oil components

The oil passes through several stages to refine it to obtain different forms of it, where the components are separated inside the filter through the fractional distillation process, so different products are separated at different temperatures inside the column, and the less dense components remain in the higher part of the column, Heavy components are at the bottom, and heavy components that are difficult to separate can be subject to fractional distillation in a vacuum, to further separate their components, as all products are subject to further improvements in different units, which in turn produce the materials. Required. [3]

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