How oil and natural gas are formed



Contents

  • 1 oil and gas formation
  • 2 stages of oil formation
  • 3 The formation of natural gas
  • 4 References

Formation of oil and gas

Millions of years ago, the seas and oceans were not what we see today. Rather, the distribution of land and water on the surface of the earth was different. Many areas of the land today were flooded with water, as the globe was subjected to geological processes that caused great changes in surface manifestations, so seas contacted with each other and separated seas. Land is dry, and other lands appeared until the continents and seas formed in their present form. [1]

Stages of oil formation

Oil passes through several stages during its formation, which are as follows: [2]
  • The first stage: The water bodies of seas and oceans were rich in algae and marine microorganisms. When they died, these materials deposited on the bottom of the seas, and with the passage of time a thick sedimentary layer formed over them, which exposed these materials to extreme pressure, and this pressure caused their temperature to rise, so these materials were analyzed to Liquid materials with high carbon (hydrocarbon) ratio .
  • The second stage: the stage of the migration of liquid materials from the areas of their formation, as they are under great pressure, so that they leak into less pressure areas through the pores, cracks and fractures of the surrounding rocks, and this leakage is either a horizontal leak or a vertical leak.
  • The third stage: It is a stage that collects the leaking fluid, so this liquid collects in the layers of sedimentary rocks, as this layer works to absorb it because of the presence of voids or pores between its molecules, so it acts as a sponge piece that attracts the liquid to it, and usually this sedimentary rock layer is over a fiery rock layer to prevent leakage The liquid from it as it acts as a barrier at the bottom of the sedimentary layers, and this case is called oil reservoirs or trap, and the depth in which these traps are from one region to another varies according to its proximity or distance from the place of its formation and also according to the rocky structure of the region.


Natural gas formation

Oil and gas are formed in the ground under the same natural conditions, and they usually exist in one field, but it is possible to find individual gas fields, and the difference between the formation of oil and natural gas is the difference in their exposure to temperature, the oil is usually at a depth of 1000 m to 6000 m either If the oil formed at a greater depth then the temperature to which it is exposed is greater, then the oil converts to gas, and the greater the depth of the oil formation, the more it becomes into a more pure gas, as it is the type of dry gas in which suspended matter decreases. After it forms a gas it begins to leak into layers Earth's crust, when colliding with a hard rock layer s Night Porous working to prevent it trapped in the infiltration of these traps. [3]

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