How is crude oil formed?


  • 1 How is crude oil formed?
  • 2 crude oil traps
  • 3 Characteristics of crude oil
  • 4 References

How is crude oil formed?

Oil is a fossil fuel formed from the remains of ancient marine creatures that lived millions of years ago; [1] where oil is according to the prevailing theory that it is the result of the accumulation of dead organic matter on the ocean floor, rivers or swamps, and its mixing with mud and sand, with the passage of time and with more From the piles of sediments on top, these organic deposits, as a result of pressure and heat, turned into a dark and waxy substance known as kerogen. [2]

After more time has passed, and the kerogen has been subjected to more pressure and heat, its molecules have turned into what are known as hydrocarbons, which are chemical compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms, and the types of hydrocarbons produced vary according to the conditions of pressure and heat, and other examples of hydrocarbons that may be produced from The process: coal, natural gas, and peat. [1]

This theory of oil formation is known as the biological theory, and it was first proposed by a Russian scientist nearly 250 years ago, [2] and oil is currently found in large underground tanks in the sites of ancient seas, either underground or on the ocean floor, and is Extracting oil from it using giant drilling machines. [1]

Crude oil traps

Oil traps can be defined as being formed underground rocks that prevent the movement of oil causing accumulation in the tanks for investment, and oil is always associated with water and often with natural gas in the traps, and oil is always confined to porous rocks usually consisting of sedimentary rocks such as sandstone, or stone Archos, cracked limestone, or dolomite, natural gas occupies the upper part of the trap because it is lighter, and oil falls below it then water falls , and the trap is covered from the top by a layer of cover rock; it is a layer of impermeable rock that prevents the upper leakage or Lateral oil, and is known as the portion It contains oil or gas from the trap as the oil reservoir. [3]

Crude oil properties

Crude oil possesses a black or dark brown color, and it can also have a color that tends to be red, yellow or green, and the reason for its different color is due to its different chemical composition from its various sources, and oil that contains a small percentage of minerals such as sulfur is lighter than others Oil, natural gas, and coal are both non-renewable energy sources that took millions of years to form. [1]