How to pray the funeral



Contents

  • 1 funeral prayer
  • 2 How to perform the funeral prayer
    • 2.1 Supplication for opening the funeral prayer
    • 2.2 Performing the funeral prayer
    • 2.3 Pillars of the funeral prayer
  • 3 The ruling on funeral prayer
  • 4 The merit of funeral prayer
  • 5 The place of prayer for funerals
  • 6 People have the right to lead the funeral prayer
  • 7 to whom he does not pray
  • 8 errors of funerals
  • 9 References

Funeral prayer

Islam took care of the individual in his life and after his death, for it was one of the guidance of the Prophet - may God’s prayers and peace be upon him - charity to the dead by praying upon him, treating him with what works for him in his grave and what is useful for him on the Day of Resurrection , preparing him in the best and best condition, and calling him for confirmation, his pledge to visit and peace and pray for him It is worth noting that the funeral prayer has its conditions as the conditions of prayer in terms of ablution and purity from the smaller and larger events *, the intention, the reception of the qiblah and the covering of the nakedness, and we will explain in this article some of the provisions of funerals and how to pray on them, [1] The funeral means in the language and convention:
  • The definition of the funeral is a language: the people of the language defined the funeral by opening the gym as it is for the dead, and the funeral with a break is for the coffin on which the dead is carried, and some of them went to the opposite so he made the funeral for the coffin, and the funeral for the dead. Some of them, including Muhammad ibn Salih al-Uthaymeen, held that the conquest is suitable for the highest and is dead, and the fracture is appropriate for the lower one, which is the coffin. [2]
  • Definition of the funeral prayer in Islam: can be defined as the funeral prayer of the jurisprudence as a prayer that Muslims pray for the dead before he was buried. [3]

How to perform the funeral prayer

The jurists differed on how to perform the funeral prayer, including their difference in the ruling on the supplication of openness in the funeral prayer, and how it is performed, and its pillars, and here comes some issues and detailing each issue.

Opening supplication at the funeral prayer

The fuqaha 'agreed that the supplication of opening the Sunnah is a certain Sunnah in the prayers that contain kneeling and prostrating, such as the obligatory prayers, the Sunnah, the Eid prayer, and others, and for the prayers that do not kneel or prostrate like the funeral prayer, the fuqaha ’differed regarding the reading of the opening in which two say: [4]
  • Al-Malikiyah, Shafi’i and Hanbalis : They said that it is not permissible to recite the opening du'aa’s during the funeral prayer, as evidence that he did not respond from the Prophet that he used to recite the supplication of the opening during the funeral prayer, and that the funeral prayer in which it is permissible to mitigate so that it is appropriate for her to leave the opening.
  • The Hanafi : They said that the supplication for opening is enacted during the funeral prayer, as evidence that it is a prayer, and the supplication for opening is Sunnah at the beginning of each prayer.

Perform the funeral prayer

Each of the schools of thought has a say in how they are, and the following is a statement: [5]
  • The Hanafi: The funeral prayer is performed by the worshiper following the deceased's chest, then he intends to perform the prayer on him in obedience to God, and he enlarges four takbeers, the first is the opening takbeer with his hands raised, then he reads the opening, and the second is enlarged without raising the hands, then he prays to the Prophet after that, and after the third takbeer he calls for the dead and for all Muslims, then he is enlarged to the fourth, then he delivers two ritual deliveries, the first on the right and he intends to deliver peace to those on his right, and the second on the left and intends to offer peace to those on his left, and he does not intend peace on the funeral, and the prayer is a secret except for the takbeerat.
  • Al-Malikiyah: The worshiper stands at the center of the funeral if she is a man, and at her shoulders * if she is a woman, then he intends to pray for those who came from the dead of Muslims, and he enlarges four takbeers, the first being the opening takbeer and is with the raising of the hands, and the rest of the takbeers without raising the hands, and calls after all The takbeerat begins, and he begins every supplication with the praise of God and prayers for his Messenger, and after completing the supplication in the fourth takbeer, he delivers one taslimah with which he intends to leave the prayer, and he enacts the sacrament with all the prayer except for the imam, so he can speak openly and enlarge to the imam.
  • Shafi’i: The worshiper stands at the head of the funeral if it is a male, and at his impotence * if she is a female, then he intends with his heart and pronounces it with his tongue: “The prayer of four takbeerat is obligatory enough for those who came from the dead of the Muslims”, then he enlarges four takbeer, raising his hands with every takbeer, and places them on His chest, as in prayer, and he says after the opening takbeer, I seek refuge without opening, then he recites Surah Al-Fatiha without a surah after it, and after the second takbeer he prays the Abrahamic prayer, and after the third he calls for the dead with any supplication that will benefit him in his end, and after the fourth he says: “Oh God, do not deprive us of his reward, and do not fascinate us. After him, "then he reads the verse:(Who hold the throne and those around him , praising the praise of their Lord and believe in Him and ask forgiveness for those who believe our Lord and sought the mercy of everything and note forgive those who repent and follow your path and the torment of hell anorexia) , [6] Then, Al-Musalla delivers two prayers to his right and left.
  • The Hanbali: The worshiper stands at the top of the funeral if it is a male, and the middle is if it is a female, then he intends to perform the funeral prayer, then he enlarges the opening takbeer with the raising of the hands, so he recites the seeking refuge and the basmalah, and after that he recites Surah Al-Fatihah only, and nothing increases it, then he enlarges the second with the raising of the hands To read after the Abrahamic prayer, and he grows up the third, raising his hands and calls for the dead, then he grows up the fourth with the raising of hands, and then he silences a little without saying anything, then he delivers one hand after one, and it is permissible for them to have two.

The pillars of the funeral prayer

It is the one that prayer cannot be fulfilled without, and if one pillar is missing from it, the prayer is invalidated and it must be repeated: [5]
  • The first pillar: It is the intention , and it is a pillar of the public except for the Hanbali who see it as a condition and not a pillar, and they all agree that it must be brought in during prayer, with their difference in its characteristic as follows:
    • The Hanafi: They see the appointment of the funeral with a male, female, or child, and if the worshiper does not know the gender of the dead, he says: "I intended to pray for the dead, which the imam prays."
    • Al-Malikiyah: They see being satisfied with the intention of praying at the deceased without specifying his gender or character.
    • Shafi’i: In the intention, it is necessary to specify the funeral prayer, and they do not require the identification of the gender of the dead, so if it is determined and it appears otherwise, it is not valid.
    • Al-Hanaf: Determine the prayer for "this dead person" if it was an individual, and "these dead people" if they were a group.
  • The second pillar: It is the takbeerat, which are four according to all the fuqaha ', and every takbeer is like a rak'ah.
  • The third pillar: It is the supplication for the deceased , and they differed in its place:
    • The Maalikis held that after every takbeer until the fourth time, the least supplication was to say: “O Allah, forgive him.” The best is by the following supplication: “O God, He is your servant, the son of your servant, and the son of your nation. And you are more aware of it; O God, if he is good, increase his charity, and if he is abusive then surpass his bad deeds; O God, do not deprive us of his reward, and do not miss us after him. .. "And likewise, if the deceased was a man and a woman, then he calls a formula that brings them together and says:" Oh God, they are your servants ... ", or if he is a group of the dead, he brings The same supplication is in a formula that brings them together, but if the deceased was a child, he calls him:
    • The Hanafi argued that supplication be after the third takbeer, and it is not a condition that supplication be private but rather calls for what is beneficial to it at the end of it. Of sins, as the white dress is purified from impurity *, and it is replaced by a house that is better than its house, and it is better than its people, and a husband is better than his wife, and he introduces him to heaven, and gives him from the torment of the grave, and the torment of fire. “And replace her with a husband that is better than her husband.” But if the deceased was a child, he calls: “Oh God, make it for us excessive. They make it an asset and a reward for us, God make it an intercessor and intercessor for us. "
    • The Shafi’is went on to say that after the third takbeer of the deceased, he will invite the deceased as many as he wants, and the supplication for him will have mercy and forgiveness and what is good for him at the end of it, and it is best for the famous supplication, and the supplication will proceed by saying: “Oh God, forgive him, have mercy, and his health ...” to the last supplication, And if the deceased was a child, he calls: “Oh God, make him excessive for his parents, ancestor, ammunition, sermon, consideration and intercessor, he weighs their balances, and he imposes patience on their hearts, and does not divide them after him, and does not deprive them of his wages.” And he comes in the appropriate form, whether with feminization, remembrance, or gathering and the like.
    • The Hanbali state that the place of the supplication is after the third takbeer, and it is permissible after the fourth takbeer , and it is not permissible for anything else, and the least supplication is: “O Allah, forgive him”, and the best is the famous prayer: “O Allah, forgive our dead and dead, and we witnessed and are absent, and we are small and old, and we mentioned and our female that you know We are Almqlbana and restrained, and you are capable of everything, O God, who revived him from us and revived him on Islam and the Sunnah, and whoever died from us, then he died on them, O God, forgive him, have mercy and his health, forgive him and honor his eminence ... "To the last supplication, and brings the appropriate pronouns in his supplication according to the gender of the deceased .
  • The fourth pillar: To perform it with the ability according to the agreement of all the fuqaha ', if he prays sitting with his ability to perform, it is not valid.
  • The fifth pillar: Reciting Al-Fatihah, which is a pillar of Shafi’i and Hanbali only, and it is permissible at Shafi’i after any takbeer, and it is better after the first, and it is not permissible to interrupt or delay its reading after another takbeer if it is initiated, otherwise the prayer will be invalidated. As for the Hanbali, its reading will be after the first takbeer. The Malikis and Hanafis hate reading it at the funeral prayer, but the Hanafis sanctioned it if it was a matter of supplication.
  • The sixth pillar: Prayers upon the Prophet after the second takbeer, which is a corner of Shafi’i and Hanbali only, and a year for the Hanafis, and it is considered Sunnah for the Maliki after every takbeer before supplication.
  • The seventh pillar: Submission after the fourth takbeer, which is the view of the majority with the exception of the Hanafis who said: The surrender is the same as in other prayers, so the prayer is not invalidated by leaving it.

Ruling on funeral prayer

Between the Prophet peace be upon him that the rule of the funeral prayer for the imposition of hypotheses enough *, and conversations function on that when he mentioned the companions of the Prophet that a man of his companions died on the Khyber , he said prayers and peace: (Pray for your companion) , [7] Fidel talk that the prayers for the dead to impose the adequacy and not the imposition of an eye, and only upon the Prophet without sufficiency by saying companions, [8] but this hypothesis becomes naafil * in the right could not reach the funeral and pray it as long as a group dropped this hypothesis Ulkipaia, But it is desirable for everyone who is able to attend to attend a lot of blessings and supplications for the dead, [9]As for wisdom from the legality of this prayer, it is to seek mercy and forgiveness for the deceased, because it is in a state in which he cannot work and benefit himself. It is the duty of the faithful brotherhood to bid him farewell by praying for him in heaven and emancipation from the fire, and that God accepts their intercession in it and honors him in his grave. [10]

The merit of funeral prayer

The Prophet urged the funeral prayer and desired it, because of its many virtues that accrue to the dead and the living, and among these virtues: [11]
  • The dead, if forty men prayed for him, then they would have intercessors for him on the Day of Resurrection, because the Prophet said: (No Muslim man dies, so he will be based on his funeral for forty men, who will not be blessed with anything . [12]
  • The one who prays on the funeral and followed up to bury his wages like a mountain, because of the hadeeth of the Prophet: (who follow the funeral of a Muslim, faith and anticipation, and was with him until he prayed for them and emptied of burial, it is because of the wage Bkiratin, each carat like one, and prayed and then Returned before they are buried, it is returned in carats) . [13]

The place of funeral prayer

It is the right of a Muslim over his Muslim brother to pray upon him if he dies, and it is Sunnah for this prayer to be in a place reserved for funerals outside the mosque, and it is better for him to be in the chapel; because the Prophet did when he prayed over the Negus, it was narrated from Abu Hurairah - may God be pleased with him - that he said : (that the Messenger of Allah , peace be upon him mourned the death of Negus in the day he died, and left them to the prayer, Vcef them, and grew by four magnifications) , [14]It is permissible to pray the funeral prayer in the mosque sometimes, and it is rare for the Prophet and the companions to pray it inside the mosque, but for what is stated in the impermissibility of the funeral prayer in the mosque, they are weak hadiths. In the chapel or the mosque, he is permitted to pray at the funeral, where he is aware of it both in and outside the cemetery, and it is permissible to pray for the dead in his grave if he is buried and he has not prayed. [10] [15] [16]

People have the right to lead the funeral prayer

The fuqaha ’differed as to who should have the priority in praying over the deceased according to the following statements: [17]
  • The Hanafi: The first people to pray at the funeral are the holders of public mandates, so that the guardian of the nation begins if he is present, then the one on his behalf who is the Prince of Egypt, then the judge, then his representative, and ends with the imam of the neighborhood, and some Hanafi went to mourning by presenting the imam of the neighborhood to the guardian If it is better than him, then the guardian is presented in the order of the marriage group, except for the father, then the son is ahead of the sons, but the son is presented to the father in the case of his knowledge and ignorance of his father, then the son of his son and if he comes down, then the grandfather and then, and then the brother, then the brother to the father, Then the nephew of the half brother, and so is the closest, then the closest as their arrangement Kah, though there Lien in the same class presents the oldest, and the priority is to pray for the deceased as previously arranged , even if recommended by a person pray for him; because the commandment When the Hanafis are invalid, there is no guardianship of the husband at the Hanafis because they considered the interruption of the relationship with the wife's death;
  • Al-Malikiyah: They see that a person has the right to pray for the dead that the dead person recommended, then the guardian, then the closest gang, such as the son, the son of the son, the father, the brother, the closest, and so on, and if the gangs are equal in degree, the best is presented in jurisprudence or hadith, and the husband does not have the right to Apply only in the absence of the league.
  • Al-Shafi’i: They see that the father is the first person to pray on the dead and if the Most High, then his son and if he came down, then the brothers, then their children, then the rest of the league according to the order in the inheritance, then the guardian or deputy, then the remaining wombs according to kinship, and the ruling of the husband as his ruling on the Hanafi And if the parents are equal in degree, the oldest is presented.
  • The Hanbali: They see that the guardian of justice is the one who has the priority in praying over the dead, then the guardian or his representative, then the father and if he is exalted, then the son and if he comes down, then the one closest to the order of inheritance, then the kinship of the womb, then the husband, and if they are equal in The degree is given to them as the first in the imamate in the five daily prayers. If they are equal, a lot is drawn between them.

Those who do not pray

There are categories of people that are not permitted to be prayed upon, and these categories: [5] [18]
  • Unbelievers: Praying for the deceased is forbidden if he is an infidel because God said: (And do not pray for any of them who has never died and do not rise on his grave because they disbelieved in God and His Messenger and died and they are sinners) . [19]
  • The child is not permissible for prayer for the child who has not reached; because the Prophet did not reach his son Ibrahim, to Aisha , may Allah be: (Matt Ibrahim bin Prophet peace be upon him, the son of eighteen months did not reach the Messenger of Allah , peace be upon him) . [20]
  • The martyr: It is not permissible to pray upon him, because the Prophet did not pray on the martyrs of anyone , as stated in the hadith of Jaber - may God be pleased with him - he said: (The Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, gathered between the two men who killed one of them in the garment of one garment, that is, one of the garments of one garment, that is, one of the garments of one of the garments, which is: taking the Koran, if refer him to one foot in the grave, and said: I am a martyr to them the day of Resurrection, and ordered burying them in their blood, and did not wash, did not reach them) , [21] this is the opinion of the public as opposed to tap those who see the necessity of prayer for him.

As for the prayer of the dead in other circumstances, it is detailed as follows: [5]
  • As for the absentee, there is disagreement over prayer:
    • The Hanbalis and Shafi’is: It is permissible to pray over the absent, and the Hanbalis specify that after his death there will be a month or less.
    • The Hanafi and Maliki: It is not permissible to pray on the absent dead person , but the Prophet’s prayer over the Negus was specific to him.
  • It is not permissible to pray for the deceased before purification by washing or doing tayammum, according to the agreement of the fuqaha '.
  • Prayers for the dead are not valid if they are located behind the worshipers, and this is the view of the majority, unlike the Malikis, who consider that the presentation of the dead is a delegate and not a condition.
  • The Hanafis and Hanbalis are of the view that it is not valid to pray for the dead portable at the time of the prayer, whether it is carried on an animal, or at the hands of people and the like, unlike Shafi’i and Maliki who see the permissibility of praying on the dead portable.

Funeral errors

The Prophet explained the provisions of the funeral and what it is necessary for the family and relatives of the deceased to do, but there may be some violations committed by a person, and these violations and errors: [22]
  • Delays in preparing the dead and burying them for no necessity or need, and this is contrary to the guidance of the Prophet who says: (Hurry up with the funeral, then you are good and good you will offer it, and if you do so, then you will be separated from it) . [23]
  • Laziness in prayer for the dead, and not following it until it is buried, because of this is wasting a lot of wages , and losing a right of the Muslim over his brother, which is to follow him after his death.
  • Delay in making up debt from the deceased, as it was reported from the Prophet that he left prayers to one of the companions because of the presence of a debt on him until some of his companions sponsored him to pay it off.
  • Departure, by raising the voice in crying, and this action has been prohibited.
  • Smashing cheeks, splitting pockets, spreading hair or shaving it, because of these acts of expressing discontent with God’s command, and dissatisfaction with his elimination, because the Prophet said: “It is not from us who smashed grooves, split pockets, and called for ignorance .” [24]
  • Pull the dead hair onto her chest, and the first shake her hair and braids, and wash them well, then all her hair is made with three braids and thrown behind her.
  • The deceased washed the dead menstruation and washed the two men, and it is correct that they only have one wash.
  • Following the funeral woman, the Prophet, the female companions, forbade following funerals, to the hadith of Umm Atiya: (We were forbidden to follow funerals, and we were not determined) . [25]
  • Walking on graves , or sitting on them.
  • Insult and insult the dead even if they are infidels.
  • The woman should not set the husband for the period of several times *, and she will leave the house during this period without need, and will be set for more than three days other than her husband.
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Margin:
* The two events: means the smaller and larger event. The larger event is what requires washing for prayer and the like, such as impurity and menstruation, and the smaller event is what obligates ablution for prayer and the like, such as wind and stools coming out. [26]
* Enforcement of sufficiency: an assumption that if some Muslims do it, the sin is removed from the rest [27]
* Her shoulders: the place near the shoulder and humerus; the humerus is between the elbow and the shoulder. [28] [29]
Impotence: The location at the bottom of the human spine. [30]
* Excessive: i.e. reward and reward. [31]
* Immaculate: meaning dirt, so he likened purifying a person from his sins, such as cleansing the white garment from dirt until it became porous, and chose white because he showed it from other colors. [32]
Al-Nafl: What exceeds the required imposition and it is desirable to act. [33]
* Several of her husband's deceased husband: She is with the wife for a period of four months and ten days. [34]

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