Definition of weather


  • 1 weather
  • 2 The difference between weather and climate
  • 3 weather elements
    • 3.1 Temperature
    • 3.2 Air pressure
    • 3.3 Wind
  • 4 Measure the weather elements
    • 4.1 Temperature
    • 4.2 Air pressure
    • 4.3 Wind
  • 5 The importance of the atmosphere and its relationship to weather
  • 6 Benefits of monitoring weather conditions for humans
  • 7 References


Weather is the atmospheric condition resulting from fluctuations that occur in the atmosphere near the surface of the earth, which is the troposphere, and that is during a short period of time, [1] and weather can be defined as the state of the atmosphere in terms of temperature, humidity, and air pressure. , In addition to wind and condensation, and that in a certain period of time may be a day or several days, [2] and knowing the daily weather conditions through weather forecasts is useful in knowing the clothes to be worn, knowing the condition of ports and airports, and the extent of the impact of wind on the movements of air and sea transport. [3]

The difference between weather and climate

Many people confuse weather and climate ; however, the weather expresses the weather condition in a specific time period, whereas the climate is a complete summary of the prevailing weather conditions, and their distribution somewhere in a long period of time, extending from a month to an entire chapter of the year, may extend To a year or several years. [1]

Weather elements

The ritual consists of a group of elements , namely:


Reflect the temperature of what is felt hotter or colder, and different degrees of heat and cold during the day, and vary throughout the whole year; depending on the different seasons of the year, and is affected by it by several factors, such as: the rotation of the night with the day, and the degree of exposure to sunlight, [3 ] also vary depending on the height from the surface of the earth; so that the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth 's surface is higher than the far him; that whenever the man rose from the surface of the earth below the temperature and feel cold, and is the rays of the sun of the most important sources that supply the land and the atmosphere necessary heat They are ill The light and heat by sending its rays to the surface of the earth, Vischen surface of the land and water, and then this heat is reflected on the gaseous atmosphere that surrounds the Earth, and this temperature rise. [4]

Atmospheric pressure

Air pressure is a column of air that extends the weight of a specific area on the surface of the ground until the end of the atmosphere, and is influenced by atmospheric pressure by several factors, such as: the temperature prevailing in the air; where atmospheric pressure rising temperature decreases, in addition to the rising sea level; the more The lower the sea level, the greater the air pressure. [5]


Wind is defined as the air currents that move impulsively from one side to the other on the surface of the earth, and this occurs because of the difference in air pressure. the same area atmospheric pressure high to low atmospheric pressure zone; to fill them and even pressure in the two regions, and called the name of the wind blowing them; winds may be winds north, or south, or other trends at Determined using a tool called rotary wind, [4] As he spoke because of its speed ratios change in atmospheric gases. [6]

Measure the weather elements


The temperature is measured at a height of one and a half meters above the surface of the earth, so that the measurement thermometers are not affected by the ground radiation, and it is preferable that the earth be covered with grass, and that the measurement thermometers are far from the walls at an appropriate distance, and it is also preferable that the temperature measurement thermometers are placed in the shade so that they are read The temperature of the passing air, and it is not exposed to the sun's rays, because it will record the temperature of the sun, not the air. [7]

Temperatures differ during the day, and for this reason two terms are used to express this, namely: the maximum temperature and the lowest temperature, and the maximum temperature is the highest temperature recorded in the day, while the lowest temperature is the lowest temperature recorded on the same day, [3] ] The maximum temperature measured by thermometer or a mercury scale, while the temperature is measured using a thermometer or micro - scale alcohol. [7]

There are several units for measuring the temperature ; the most famous of them are: Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin, and they were named according to the names of the scientists who created them, and the difference between them is based on determining the zero point, and the distance between the point and the next, and here comes a simple explanation for each of them: [3]
  • Celcius system : Also known as the centenary system, it depends the zero degree of water freezing, and the degree of 100 to boil it; therefore it is called centenary, and this system is considered one of the most prevalent systems; it is used in most countries of the world except the United States of America.
  • Fahrenheit system: This system depends on the degree of zero to freeze the saline solution, not ordinary water, and the degree of freezing of normal water is 32 Fahrenheit, and each percentage degree equals 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit .
  • Kelvin System: The use of this system is not wide-ranging, as it is used in research and scientific experiments, and the system adopts the beginning of the gradient of zero as the lowest temperature in nature, and is equal to 273 below zero on the Celcius scale, i.e. (-273) degrees centigrade, in order to avoid the signal Negative in measurement.

Atmospheric pressure

Air pressure is measured using a device used by meteorological stations called the barometer, and through it changes in air pressure are known. Mountains, astronauts, and workers in the seas and oceans, to know how to behave in situations where the pressure is severe. [8]


Measuring the speed of wind is very important, because it has an impact on the temperature of the atmosphere, the process of photosynthesis of plants, and the movement of air and maritime navigation. consists of a vertical pole, four horizontal arms mounted on a pole the top, and at the end of each arm of a hollow bowl from the inside, and when the wind rotates arms around the central axis, and at increasing the speed of the wind speed of rotation increases, but today is used more accurate Lq types S wind speed, such as: Onimomitr air mill, and Alonimomitr thermoelectric, and Alonimomitr who works strongly laser, and also Alonimomitr which operates laser Doppler technology, which is very sensitive and accurate devices. [6]

To know the direction of the wind, the rotating arrow, or what is known as the wind rotary, is used as an arrow in the shape of a arrow with a wide end to push the wind easily and continuously. The west, north, south, and at the meteorological station, the direction of the wind is recorded every day at a specific hour, and the frequencies of the wind for the different directions are calculated as percentages, and from these ratios the direction of the wind is determined. [6]

The importance of the atmosphere and its relationship to weather

The atmosphere is a group of gases surrounding the globe that prevent gravity from escaping into space, and these gases are: nitrogen by 78%, oxygen by 21%, and other gases by 1%, and the atmosphere has many benefits; it contains the oxygen needed to breathe Living organisms, protects the Earth from meteorites and meteors, as it protects it from harmful rays, especially ultraviolet rays, and atmospheric gases form a medium that helps to transport sound waves, as it helps to fly, and condensation of water vapor to form clouds . [9]

Most atmospheric phenomena occur in the troposphere near the surface of the earth, and this layer rises from the surface of the earth approximately 8-18 km, and the atmosphere prevents the ground radiation from launching into space, and thus maintains the difference in temperature between night and day, and had it not been for the atmosphere This difference is so great that there is no life on the surface of the earth, and the average temperature on the ground will become (-19) degrees instead of 15 degrees. [9]

Benefits of monitoring weather conditions for humans

Meteorology has many benefits to human life in several areas, namely: [10]
  • Air Navigation: All airports are concerned with knowing the weather conditions , and they take into account all warnings to avoid any accidents or weather accidents.
  • Maritime Navigation: Knowing the weather status is important for the movement of ports and ships , in order to avoid any accident.
  • The agricultural sector: it is one of the sectors that are most affected by the weather, so rain, drought and frost affect crops. Therefore, care must be taken to preserve agricultural crops.
  • Energy field: Solar energy and wind are considered sources of renewable energy, and their investment depends on knowing the weather conditions from meteorological stations, and the consumption of energy sources, such as: gas, and electricity changes in the summer and winter seasons, depending on the degree of coldness in the air, for example: In the air, to take the necessary measures to avoid the interruption of gas in the winter.
  • Daily human activities: affected by the activities of daily human weather conditions prevailing, such as going out for a walk, or do sports outside the home activity, influenced by the quality of dress weather, also helps the warning of snow or fog or storms to avoid a lot of accidents, and take necessary to deal measures With hard cases.

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