Causes of the First World War



Contents

  • 1 Wars
  • 2 Causes of the First World War
  • 3 First World War path
  • 4 mobilization in World War I
  • 5 characters prepared for the First World War
    • 5.1 Napoleon
    • 5.2 Ottovo Bismarck
  • 6 Results of the First World War
  • 7 References
  • 8 Canary War video

Wars

The world witnessed in the early twentieth century a number of political and military developments, which led to the outbreak of war between the major countries, to which most of the world joined, and it was known as the First World War; it was called this name because most of the countries of the world had participated in it directly or indirectly .

Causes of the First World War

The largest powers in Europe - Austria, Hungary, Germany, Russia, France, and Great Britain - entered the conflict known as the First World War, during the eight days that spanned them from the end of July to the beginning of August 1914 AD, and these war actions cost these countries High cost, I was astonished at the men of the country, who were aware of the smallest details.


The basis of these disputes between the big countries was rooted and deep rooted, as the victory that Germany achieved under the leadership of Autofon Bismarck in the Franco-Prussian War between 1870 and 1871 led to the beginning of the emergence of a united Germany, and thus created a state of continuous tension. Moreover, Germany's rapid emergence as a dominant power in the continent had cast a shadow over Britain's interests, and led to a significant deterioration in their relations.

In addition, there are also a host of other factors, such as Germany's construction of a large fleet dependent on warships, and it seemed to Britain that this fleet, which contains ships of great strength, is capable of facing its large fleet in the North Sea, and that there is a great potential for control The Germans are on the sea lanes that surround Britain, and thus work to threaten food security for them. (1)
All of the above is considered one of the indirect reasons that contributed to the outbreak of the First World War, but the main reason for its outbreak was the assassination of Austrian Crown Prince Franz Ferdinand with his wife, by a Serbian student named Gavrilo Principe, and this happened on June 28 of In 1914, during their visit to Sarajevo, specifically in the region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austria, after this incident, declared war on Serbia, and Russia supported Serbia by declaring war on Austria, while Germany declared war on Russia.

During this war, the countries were divided into two parts: the Allied forces led by the United Kingdom, and the center countries led by Germany, then the circle of alliances expanded with the widening of the circle of wars, and many countries entered the side of each of the two parties, and the war lasted for more than four years, became one of During it a world war after it was on a European scale. (2)

The course of World War I

The First World War began in August 1914, through a major German attack on the western front, and the Germans thought that they would be able to destroy enemy forces through one blow, but the French in return had started an attack on German soil in turn, but these two plans did not They received success, as the two attacks ended in complete failure.

With the beginning of 1915, the attacks began to take a completely different grant, so the pattern of attacks became clear, and they resulted in only horrific numbers of victims, then new types of weapons were introduced into the battles due to the stalemate that hit the war, and the two sides used poison gas as of the beginning of 1915 In 1916, tanks first appeared on the battlefield.

The desperation prevailing on both sides became more evident in 1917, as the French began an attack against the Germans in Champagne, but it was severely failed as a result of the Germans' steadfastness, which prompted many in the French army to rebel, and the Germans also made desperate steps towards victory, They began using submarines, which were considered the instrument that was used for the first time in World War I, as these submarines were able to achieve the victory that the army was unable to achieve, but by the end of 1917 it became clear that these submarines would not achieve the desired victory.

Then the last year of the war began with the German offensive, with the Germans directing severe strikes along the western front, hoping that both the French and the British would be defeated before the massive American forces reached them, but in the end the coalition forces withstood this fierce attack. (1)

Mobilization in World War I

A set of weapons was used for the first time during the First World War, including: (3)
  • Sprinklers.
  • Cannons and submarines.
  • Primitive aircraft used in fighting and spying.
  • Blimps attached to the controls for surveillance operations.
  • Tanks.
  • Toxic gas to get the soldiers out of the trenches or strangle them.

Before this war, Europe was divided into two camps: (3)
  • The Tripartite Alliance : Where Germany led the chancellor Ottovan Bismarck - Prime Minister of Germany - formed alliances with Austria-Hungary, and in 1879 both countries agreed to participate together in the war if one of them was attacked, then Italy joined this alliance, in what became known Then the three-way coalition, and they all agreed to help each other in the event of any aggression on any of these countries, and this alliance continued until the outbreak of war.
  • The Three Emperors : Bismarck urged Austria-Hungary and Germany to enter an alliance with Russia, as these countries agreed to remain neutral if one of them participated in the war, and Bismarck attempted to prevent the creation of any alliance between France and Russia.

Characters paved for the First World War

There are a group of people who can be said to have been the cause of the preparation for the occurrence of the First World War.

Napoleon

Napoleon was the first emperor of France and one of the strongest and greatest powers at the time, and Napoleon was a lot of external adventures, in which he triumphed one time and failed another, and his wars multiplied on the European continent, provoking all the great powers, including what exceeded his capabilities such as his invasion of Russia in a year 1812, and in this period the system of alliances between European states against it appeared, which ended in the defeat of Waterloo.

He entered the war in 1805 against three of the greatest powers at the time: Russia, Austria, and Britain, through which he succeeded in defeating both Austria and Russia. Russia defied the Napoleonic pact and attacked it, and at first overpowered its army, but upon its entry into Moscow had its people destroyed, and its army was exhausted and starving, and that was its last defeat that destroyed all its hopes. (3)

Autofoo Bismarck

He is the first advisor to the German Reich, and has been described in history books as the Iron Man, whose orientations and politics were indirect causes, which paved the way for the emergence of World War I.

The iron and blood policy pursued by Bismarck pursued the unification of Germany, but on the other hand it represented a fertile environment for the emergence of intellectual and nationalist extremism, and then the victory of Prussia over Austria led to an increase in tension between it and France, and Bismarck was not afraid to fight the war against France, and he would be missing this War is but a small spark, and this happened in the 1870s when Prince Leopold was offered to ascend the Spanish throne, so France opposed this candidacy, and in order to push France to declare war on Prussia, Bismarck deliberately spread the dialogue that took place between King Philhem and the French ambassador to Prussia, in a manner Insulted to Prussia, fled V France through the mobilization of their armies, and Franco-Prussian War was a great victory for Russia.

After the end of the war, Bismarck tended to secure the Federation of Germany, then the king announced their first emperor to Germany in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, and the new empire consisted of 25 states. (3)

The results of the First World War

One of the results of the First World War was the collapse of the forces of the countries of the center, and Bulgaria was the first to sign the armistice, on September 29, 1918, in Thessaloniki, and then the landslides continued and the surrender agreements were signed, where Germany signed a truce with Compiegne with The Allies, inside a railroad vehicle on November 11, 1918, came into effect at the eleventh hour on November 11, 2001.

Among the losses suffered by both parties were human losses, where more than eight million people were killed, while millions were injured and lost, and one of the results was also significant economic losses, as poverty and unemployment spread, and the warring countries reached a severe financial crisis due to the rise The costs of the war were exorbitant, and therefore the European countries' indebtedness increased, which led to a decline in their economic hegemony, and this was in the interest of the United States of America and Japan.

The map of Europe changed after the First World War, where the old imperial systems disintegrated, then the ruling families fell, and the borders of the European continent changed through the emergence of new countries, then the Russian revolution, which applied the first socialist system within the framework of the Soviet Union.

As for the Arab countries, the Ottoman caliphate was joined to the center countries in the First World War, and this marked the beginning of the end for the history of the Ottoman Empire, where the defeat of Germany and the Ottoman Empire placed the fate of the Arab states in the hands of Britain and France. (2)

References

(1) Acting on the book World War I / Neil Heyman / Abu Dhabi Tourism and Culture Authority / first edition.
(2) Acting on the essay of the First World War / Al-Jazeera Encyclopedia / Al-Jazeera Website / aljazeera.net
(3) Acting for the Atlas of the Two World Wars: Earth, War and Peace / Issam Abdel-Fattah / Al-Sharif Mas for Publishing and Distribution / First Edition.

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